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Posted 10 Aug 2005

# Fortune's Voronoi algorithm implemented in C#

, 21 Apr 2013
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A C# implementation of the Fortune algorithm to compute 2D Voronoi graphs.

## Introduction

Given a set of two dimensional vectors (or data points), a Voronoi graph is a separation of those points into compartments where all points inside one compartment are closer to the contained data point than to any other data point. I won't give any demonstration here, but if you want to know more about Voronoi graphs, check out this.

The applications of Voronoi graphs are quite broad. Very useful for a lot of optimization problems (in most cases, the Delaunay Triangulation which can be easily derived from a Vononoi graph is used there), it ranges to computing topological maps from bitmaps.

[This is an article for freaks. After a rather painful experience writing the thing I hope it will benefit everyone who is looking for this algorithm in a civilized language (or simply does not want to use Fortune's original C implementation).]

In 1987, Steve Fortune described an algorithm to compute such a graph by using a sweep line in combination with a binary tree. A PowerPoint explanation of the algorithm (the one I used to implement it) can be found here. Note that I did not use the linked data structure to represent a graph - I think that is an unnecessary difficulty in the age of `ArrayList`s and `HashSet`s.

## The Implementation

Data points are represented by my own `Vector` class. It can do much more than needed here (but there was no reason to strip it before bringing it) but I won't explain it here. The most important fact is that although working with `double`s the Vector class automatically rounds values to 10 digits (or whatever is set in the `Vector.Precision` field). Yes, sadly, this is very important if you want to sort of compare `double`s.

A `VoronoiGraph` is a class that only contains a `HashSet` of vertices (as 2D vectors) and a `HashSet` of `VoronoiEdge`s - each with references to the left and right data point and (of course) the two vertices that bound the edge. If the edge is (partially or completely) unbounded, the vector `Fortune.VVUnknown` is used.

`BinaryPriorityQueue` is used for the sweep line event queue.

## Usage

The algorithm itself (`Fortune.ComputeVoronoiGraph(IEnumerable)`) takes any `IEnumerable` containing only two dimensional vectors. It will return a `VoronoiGraph`. The algorithm's complexity is O(n ld(n)) with a factor of about 10 microseconds on my machine (2GHz).

## About the Author

 Software Developer (Senior) Germany
I did my diploma in Dresden and Sydney where I dealt with algorithms, agents and other cool AI stuff. Now I moved to Frankfurt to work on my PhD dealing with software structures for artificial intelligence systems. If I can, I do things in C# and ASP.NET, but if I have to, my C++, Java and SQL are not that bad.
Long Live .NET.

## Comments and Discussions

 Re: Finding distance for VoronoiGraph vertizes representing Medial Axis of closed boundary Member 917583217-Jul-12 17:11 Member 9175832 17-Jul-12 17:11
 Is there a way to construct polygons from all the edges ? And how ? seb.493-Jun-12 22:36 seb.49 3-Jun-12 22:36
 Possible issue. When I draw 2 points I haven't 2 area seb.4931-May-12 0:59 seb.49 31-May-12 0:59
 Re: Possible issue. When I draw 2 points I haven't 2 area BenDi31-May-12 4:11 BenDi 31-May-12 4:11
 2 points is a special case I really didn't spend time on, so it's quite possible it does not handle it. Everything from 3 points up should work fine, though.
 Re: Possible issue. When I draw 2 points I haven't 2 area seb.4931-May-12 5:44 seb.49 31-May-12 5:44
 Re: Possible issue. When I draw 2 points I haven't 2 area BenDi31-May-12 8:00 BenDi 31-May-12 8:00
 Re: Possible issue. When I draw 2 points I haven't 2 area seb.4931-May-12 10:53 seb.49 31-May-12 10:53
 This code is shitted Member 868370514-May-12 5:42 Member 8683705 14-May-12 5:42
 Re: This code is shitted maamaamaa29-Jun-13 6:42 maamaamaa 29-Jun-13 6:42
 Any way to handle boundaries and holes? James Maeding16-Dec-10 12:03 James Maeding 16-Dec-10 12:03
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