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Posted 2 Jan 2009

FFT Guitar Tuner

, 10 Aug 2010
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Using a Fast Fourier Transform to calculate the fundamental frequency of the captured audio sound


This article shows how to use a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm to calculate the fundamental frequency of a captured audio sound. Also, we will see how to apply the algorithm to analyze live sound to build a simple guitar tuner: the code provides a solution to the problem of calculation of the fundamental frequency of the played pitch.


The computer can capture live sound/music using a microphone that is connected to the sound card. Modern sound cards can capture digital signals. A digital signal is a set of quantized sound values that were taken in uniformly spaced times. The digital signal does not provide any information about frequencies that are present in the sound. To determine that, the data need to be analyzed.

The Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) makes representation of the phase and magnitude of the signal. The result of the STFT can be used to produce the spectrogram of the signal: the magnitude squared over time and frequencies. We will use a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to generate the spectrogram of the signal of short periods of time. After the spectrogram is calculated, the fundamental frequency can be determined by finding the index of the maximum value of the magnitude squared. The improved algorithm finds several such places, candidate frequency bins, with the magnitude squared in the top of the maximum values, and further analyzes them to verify the candidate fundamental frequencies by using the signal data.

When a note is played on a musical instrument, the sound waves are generated by strings, air, or the speaker - an instrument generates a musical note. One of the characteristics of a musical note is a pitch (fundamental frequency). Traditionally musical alphabet frequencies are divided by octaves, and then by semitones. An octave has 12 named pitches: C (prime), C#, D, D#, E, F, F#, G, G#, A, A#, and B. Octaves also have names: great, small, one-lined, two-lined, etc. The "standard pitch" (A one-lined or A4) has a fundamental frequency of its sound waves equals to 440 Hz. The frequencies of two neighboring notes are different by 21/12, and frequencies of the notes with the same name in two neighboring octaves are different by 2.

Table: Notes and Their Fundamental Frequencies
Note NameTraditional Octave Names (Scientific), Hz
Great (2)Small (3)One-lined (4)Two-lined (5)

The typical (six string) guitar normally plays pitches of great through two-lined octaves. The pitches of the open strings (E2, A2, D3, G3, B3, and E4) are selected in the table in bold.

Using the Code

The solution contains three projects: the main windows application (FftGuitarTuner), the sound analysis library (SoundAnalysis), and the sound capture library (SoundCapture). The heart of the solution and the SoundAnalysis project is the FFT algorithm (see the Calculate method of the SoundAnalysis.FftAlgorithm class):

// bit reversal
ComplexNumber[] data = new ComplexNumber[length];
for (int i = 0; i < x.Length; i++)
    int j = ReverseBits(i, bitsInLength);
    data[j] = new ComplexNumber(x[i]);

// Cooley-Tukey 
for (int i = 0; i < bitsInLength; i++)
    int m = 1 << i;
    int n = m * 2;
    double alpha = -(2 * Math.PI / n);

    for (int k = 0; k < m; k++)
        // e^(-2*pi/N*k)
        ComplexNumber oddPartMultiplier = 
           new ComplexNumber(0, alpha * k).PoweredE();

        for (int j = k; j < length; j += n)
            ComplexNumber evenPart = data[j];
            ComplexNumber oddPart = oddPartMultiplier * data[j + m];
            data[j] = evenPart + oddPart;
            data[j + m] = evenPart - oddPart;

// calculate spectrogram
double[] spectrogram = new double[length];
for (int i = 0; i < spectrogram.Length; i++)
    spectrogram[i] = data[i].AbsPower2();

The data for the algorithm is provided from the sound card capture buffer. The abstract SoundCapture.SoundCaptureBase utility class is an adapter for DirectSound's Capture and CaptureBuffer classes, that helps to encapsulate buffering and setting up the audio format parameters. The application requires Microsoft DirectX 9 runtime components for the live sound capture from the microphone.

Main Application Form

Figure: Main Application Form

After the application is started, select the sound device and play a note. The application will capture the live sound and will calculate the current fundamental frequency of the signal. The information can be used to tune the guitar.

Points of Interest

To calculate the Fast Fourier Transform, the Cooley-Tukey algorithm was used. It gives good performance for the required task. To challenge the algorithm, the application analyses about 22,000 sample blocks in real time: the sound is captured at a 44,100 Hz rate and a 16 bits sample size, and the analysis is performed twice a second.

The sound analysis library can be used for tone, background noise, sound, or speech detection. Series of the spectrogram of the continued sound can be displayed as a 2D (or 3D) image to present it visually.


  1. "Musical Note", Wikipedia
  2. "Short-Time Fourier Transform", Wikipedia
  3. "Fast Fourier Transform", Wikipedia
  4. "Cooley-Tukey FFT Algorithm", Wikipedia


  • 1st January, 2009: Initial version
  • 2nd January, 2009: Added algorithm code snippet
  • 3rd August, 2010: Corrected article typos; new frequency detection algorithm


This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The MIT License


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Comments and Discussions

AnswerRe: cannot see microphone no matter what Pin
bmac20-Jul-13 6:59
memberbmac20-Jul-13 6:59 
QuestionHow do I get the data for creating a dense spectrogram? Pin
David247-Oct-11 10:38
memberDavid247-Oct-11 10:38 
QuestionI'm picking up the audio from line 1 and line 2, but ... Pin
TheJediMaster30-Sep-11 14:00
memberTheJediMaster30-Sep-11 14:00 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pin
AMCode26-Sep-11 4:33
memberAMCode26-Sep-11 4:33 
QuestionHow to get the sound of line 2? Pin
TheJediMaster27-Jul-11 6:36
memberTheJediMaster27-Jul-11 6:36 
GeneralGuitar Tuner (macro and micro tuning) - The Dark Side of the Force. (please test) Pin
TheJediMaster16-Jul-11 11:10
memberTheJediMaster16-Jul-11 11:10 
GeneralRe: Guitar Tuner (macro and micro tuning) - The Dark Side of the Force. (please test) Pin
fullcharged247-Feb-12 18:58
memberfullcharged247-Feb-12 18:58 
Questionjust one more thing Pin
TheJediMaster14-Jul-11 15:12
memberTheJediMaster14-Jul-11 15:12 
I modified the value of these variables

Const MinFreq As Double = 40 '60
Const MaxFreq As Double = 4000 '1300

everything is ok, I got a wider range of sound from the piano keys.

Well, my question is about another matter: there is a problem if I change BitsPerSample to 24? is better or worse?
And change the m_sampleRate to 48000? improves the result or not?
And what is the ChannelCount?
I have an external card M-Audio Fast Track Pro, which supports sample rate of 48000 and 24-bit sample depth.

AnswerRe: just one more thing Pin
notmasteryet14-Jul-11 15:57
membernotmasteryet14-Jul-11 15:57 
GeneralRe: just one more thing Pin
TheJediMaster14-Jul-11 16:24
memberTheJediMaster14-Jul-11 16:24 
QuestionIs there any advantage if I increase or decrease the value of BufferSeconds? Pin
TheJediMaster12-Jul-11 13:40
memberTheJediMaster12-Jul-11 13:40 
AnswerRe: Is there any advantage if I increase or decrease the value of BufferSeconds? Pin
notmasteryet12-Jul-11 15:58
membernotmasteryet12-Jul-11 15:58 
GeneralRe: Is there any advantage if I increase or decrease the value of BufferSeconds? Pin
TheJediMaster13-Jul-11 12:17
memberTheJediMaster13-Jul-11 12:17 
QuestionWhat about win7 Pin
amersaw10-Jul-11 15:42
memberamersaw10-Jul-11 15:42 
AnswerRe: What about win7 Pin
TheJediMaster11-Jul-11 11:44
memberTheJediMaster11-Jul-11 11:44 
AnswerRe: What about win7 Pin
bmac20-Jul-13 7:02
memberbmac20-Jul-13 7:02 
SuggestionHere is how to display the name of the note and octave for the note. Pin
TheJediMaster8-Jul-11 4:43
memberTheJediMaster8-Jul-11 4:43 
Question"frequencyTextBox" update Pin
TheJediMaster8-Jul-11 2:09
memberTheJediMaster8-Jul-11 2:09 
AnswerRe: "frequencyTextBox" update Pin
TheJediMaster12-Jul-11 13:42
memberTheJediMaster12-Jul-11 13:42 
GeneralRe: "frequencyTextBox" update Pin
notmasteryet12-Jul-11 16:00
membernotmasteryet12-Jul-11 16:00 
QuestionI made some changes: Voice tuner Pin
TheJediMaster7-Jul-11 9:17
memberTheJediMaster7-Jul-11 9:17 
QuestionFundamental frequency algoritm Pin
Kvanttt1-Jul-11 9:46
memberKvanttt1-Jul-11 9:46 
BugI'm having problems using the VB .Net version, running on Windows 7 64-bit Pin
TheJediMaster30-Jun-11 15:24
memberTheJediMaster30-Jun-11 15:24 
GeneralRe: I'm having problems using the VB .Net version, running on Windows 7 64-bit Pin
notmasteryet30-Jun-11 15:26
membernotmasteryet30-Jun-11 15:26 
GeneralRe: I'm having problems using the VB .Net version, running on Windows 7 64-bit Pin
TheJediMaster5-Jul-11 12:23
memberTheJediMaster5-Jul-11 12:23 

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