13,297,547 members (50,759 online)
alternative version

#### Stats

73.1K views
48 bookmarked
Posted 12 Jun 2012

# RGB to YUV conversion with different chroma sampling using C++,

, 10 Jul 2012
 Rate this:
RGB to YUV conversion with different chroma sampling using C++.

## Introduction

This article is for beginners in image processing especially those who like to do in C++. Here I am try to describes the logic of RGB to YCbCr conversion and Chroma sampling. We can find many articles over the internet, which explains the logic and theories behind this conversion. But it is hard to find a C++ code that uses different Chroma sampling schemes. One more thing, this is not a robust code, if you want to use it in your project please re-write it according to your skill.

According to wiki “YUV is a color space typically used as part of a color image pipeline. It encodes a color image or video taking human perception into account, allowing reduced bandwidth for chrominance components, thereby typically enabling transmission errors or compression artifacts to be more efficiently masked by the human perception than using a "direct" RGB-representation…. “You can read more from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YUV.

In simple sentence, YUV is an image compression technique or part of an image compression technique which omits some details from the image, which cannot be detected by human eye. In YUV, Y represents luminance or light intensity of the image; U and V are the color components. During image compression we cannot omit any luminance[Y] information but we can omit some color or chrominance components based on Chroma sub sampling schemas.

Chroma sub sampling is a measure of YUV compression. We can select different Chroma sampling schemes based on our requirements. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chroma_sampling.

Before going to the  next line you should ensure that you have a better understanding about the YUV color space.

## How it Works

It’s a simple arithmetic to convert RGB to YUV.  The formula is based on the relative contributions that red, green, and blue make to the luminance and chrominance factors. There are several different formulas in use depending on the target monitor.<o:p />

Here I am chooses ITU-R version formula<o:p />

RGB  to YUV<o:p />

Y = 0.299 * R + 0.587 * G + 0.114 * B<o:p />

U = -0.1687 * R – 0.3313* G + 0.5 * B +        128<o:p />

V = 0.5 * R – 0.4187 * G – 0.813 * B + 128

YUV to RGB<o:p />

R = Y+ 0 * U + 1.13983 * V<o:p />

G = Y+ -0.39465 * U + -0.58060 * V<o:p />

B = Y+ -0.03211 * U + 0 * V<o:p />

Now we have the YUV data and it’s time to apply Chroma sampling, all about Chroma sampling is shown in the below image. <o:p />

The available chroma samplings are given below<o:p />

 Chroma Sampling Output Y size corresponding to a 4x4 block 4:4:4 Y - for each pixel, Cr and Cb-For each pixel 4:4: 0 Y - for each pixel, Cr and Cr For each pixel of alternate rows 4:2:2 Y - for each pixel, Cr and Cr For each pixel of alternate columns 4:2: 0 Y - for each pixel, Cr and Cr For each pixel of alternate columns and rows 4:1:1 Y - for each pixel, Cr and Cr For each pixel of every 4th columns 4:1: 0 Y - for each pixel, Cr and Cr For each pixel of every 4th columns and rows

This image is taken from the article “Chrominance Sub sampling in Digital Images” by Douglas A. Kerr

<o:p />You can select different chroma sampling and image views from corresponding combo boxes in the GUI as shown below

## Using the code

The RGB to YUV conversion takes place in the `RGBtoYUV` class. The methods available in the  `RGBtoYUV`  class are given below.

```bool CovertRGBtoYUV( byte* pbyData_i, int nWidth_i, int nHeight_i, CString csChromaSampling_i );
byte* GetYData()
byte* GetCbData();
byte* GetCrData();
byte* ConvertYUVtoRGB( ) ```

For displaying the image all output images are converted to gray scale by filling the three channels [RGB] with same data.

## Points of Interest

If you understood the above concept, you are not far from a JPEG encoder.

## History

• #### 06/12/2012

First release.
• 07/11/2012

Second release. <o:p />

## Share

 Software Developer (Senior) India
No Biography provided

## You may also be interested in...

 Pro Pro

 First Prev Next
 a bug ? 马利军1-Sep-15 19:16 马利军 1-Sep-15 19:16
 "YUV is an image compression technique" ? Chris Losinger19-Aug-15 8:58 Chris Losinger 19-Aug-15 8:58
 There is a mistake in YUVtoRGB() kavinguy11-Jun-15 7:59 kavinguy 11-Jun-15 7:59
 you made a mistake billconan16-Mar-15 19:54 billconan 16-Mar-15 19:54
 My vote of 5 Michael N. Haephrati10-Jul-14 14:00 Michael N. Haephrati 10-Jul-14 14:00
 about save the file liaoyuandeyehuo20-Apr-13 18:00 liaoyuandeyehuo 20-Apr-13 18:00
 May I ask about executable (windows x86) binary that can output a jpg in yv12 or yuv colorspace. Benjamin Netayanhu9-Feb-13 21:46 Benjamin Netayanhu 9-Feb-13 21:46
 May I ask about executable (windows x86) binary that can output a jpg in yv12 or yuv colorspace. I mean converter type of application not just number calculating. I search around google for 30 minutes and find out nothing. Basically I've import a JPG logo to AviDemux but it required JPG format with YV12 or YUV colorspace. And in homepage they recommended XnView, my PC already have got one version of XnView but doesn't seem to convert well. End-up the same warning that not support colorspace. Can anyone give me suggestion? I know it's community of elite coder and developer, not end-user but I don't see anywhere else to ask... thanks.
 My vote of 4 Knightxie10-Jan-13 20:18 Knightxie 10-Jan-13 20:18
 My vote of 5 andy1985110516-Dec-12 19:16 andy19851105 16-Dec-12 19:16
 My vote of 5 asunbb21-Jul-12 4:27 asunbb 21-Jul-12 4:27
 Last Visit: 31-Dec-99 19:00     Last Update: 15-Dec-17 22:10 Refresh 1