By the way, 50 km is about half a degree. Depending on the amount of rows in your table, it might be wise to filter for longitude between -122.5 and -121.5 and latitude between 36.5 and 37.5 first.
Also a simple transformation with 110 km/degree for latitude, and 110 * cos(latitude) for longitude, and then using simple pythagoras might speed up the query.
To add to Jorgen's answer, I've always wondered why SQL Server doesn't allow us to use alias in WHERE and HAVING clauses. The answer to that lies in the logical order in which the query is processed. The WHERE and HAVING clauses are processed before the SELECT clause and the alias do not exist at that stage.
However, technically it should be possible to introduce another stage earlier in the query processing pipeline where a mapping between expressions and their alias is made and WHERE and HAVING clauses can look up to these mappings and substitute the actual expression in place of the alias.