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For a start you seem to assume a robot is sentient, good luck with that one, if it is not sentient then it has no rights and no requirement for wages/recompense.
Compensating someone (Govt) for using a robot to do the work is not going to happen, it isn't today, why would you think it will in the future. A completely different economic model is going to have to be invented to achieve your vision.
And if you think the corporates are going to abdicate the money management to a govt your nuts. A production tax may be one way to go!
Never underestimate the power of human stupidity
Modern world economies are based on perceived value anyways. A dollar or a euro has no value if people do not perceive that it has value.
So in the modern company, an employee (human) produces value for the company and is paid, as the human perceives it, value for that work. Then that human spends the money that they made on something they want. And often that value has nothing to do with a real product being sold at that point. When the receptionist asks someone to wait in the waiting area until their appointment there are no goods being sold nor, for that transaction, will there ever be.
On this fantastical scheme here, which does in fact have many problems, the human employee in the above is still paid but that money goes into a pool which is distributed to all people in the country. If the company does not use the robot there is no 'pay' and it doesn't go into the pool.
The premise is that all the wealth ($) generated by robots will be distributed to humans.
Where do the raw resources come from? How are they paid for?
First as I noted the scheme here has many problems and is nonsensical. So pointless to investigate each bad assumption.
However the original stipulation was not that all workers would disappear nor would all wealth (assets) disappear.
Just that some workers would be replaced.
So if a car company replaces workers with robots those workers would pay the stipend to the pool.
However the purchase of steel by that company would still require buying the steel. The steel company would still receive money and they in turn might have robots (replacement humans) and would pay to the pool as well. This continues throughout all supply chains.
Like I said there are many problems with the original supposition and no way to defend them. It wasn't my suggestion and I am not going to attempt to defend what I consider utter fantasy in many different ways in the first place.
You didn't account for a single very important question. With government already in the pockets of industry, why would the owners of robots ever allow such a tax to be levied? Wouldn't they be happier and richer if they kept all the money?
Let me paint you a different future scenario. People work like slaves at horrifying low-wage jobs for 40 years to make enough money to purchase a robot. They lease this robot to a manufacturer to make profitable things, living off the income produced by this lease. Leasees have little incentive (beyond their contract) to care for the leased robots, so sometimes they are used harshly, destroying a lifetime of work for some squishy human. If newer, better robots come out, the value of the older robot is degraded, causing an income shortfall for the lessor.
In the end, robots become a more desirable workforce than humans for all types of jobs, and only families who own a robot on that day can make enough money to feed themselves. The remaining humans live a Mad-Max life in unwanted wasteland, trying to grow or forage enough calories to survive day-to-day. They turn to crime, dry-gulching robots and stripping them for parts to make other robots. Just as happened with the Luddites, the government makes disassembling a robot a capital offense. Now robots are people too, and just in time, as they gradually become self-aware.
Now societies of robots form businesses that go into competition with human-controlled businesses, and compete for resources with human-controlled businesses, driving up prices. This is the end for wild humans, and the beginning of the end for human-run businesses. Human activity is now fully superfluous everywhere. AIs controlled by the robots evolve faster than AIs controlled by humans, and outthink them.
If we're very lucky, the robots won't decide to exterminate us, but will set up a reservation for the human remnants, something like Madagascar or Austrailia: something without many valuable resources.
I wonder if the last Neandertal observed those tall-walking, gracile homo sapiens and was proud of his successors. Or was he bitter and disillusioned for having invited them into his villages and caves, only to be out-competed and out-smarted.