Theoretically speaking, yes, but you won't want to get into so much trouble — they are not designed for this purpose. It would be quite difficult to organize such communication. You will understand it if you understand what GPIO is: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General-purpose_input/output
For communications, USB or Ethernet is used. In you have some other device (GSP, modem, anything) which still uses something line RS-232, you can use one of the adapter products.