I don't think you can use SQLiteDatabase.openDatabase method for a remote sql lite call. It appears that sql lite has to be on the device or sd card.
Can Android SQLiteDatabase.openDatabase() be used to open a remote sqlite database? - Stack Overflow
Now if you are trying to centralize your database so that multiple hardware devices call the same database you should look at exposing your database via web service and then have your many different device platforms make calls to that web service rather than trying to host it on s3. Which by the way, if you are doing it the way it appears, you've made your s3 sql lite DB public without requiring a presigned url.