ASP.NET is an umbrella term, that constitutes and provides the web development framework, from personal to enterprise application development. ASP.NET MVC was the framework introduced that worked on Model-view-controller pattern, of web development. ASP.NET MVC can support personal websites, all the way to enterprise web application development with authentication modules, to database integration and custom handlers for HTTP. Now that was a perfect framework to develop applications on.
Times have changed, now the focus is on the frameworks, applications, and runtimes that are available anywhere — and by anywhere, we mean, cloud, cross-platform, and cheaper servers. ASP.NET MVC used to work fine, but it is not a cloud-native platform, neither can it run on Linux or macOS — without being modified or compiled against Mono runtime. So in that case, ASP.NET Core was introduced, ASP.NET Core also uses the same MVC pattern, but the apps run smoothly on Windows, Linux and macOS, they are also built with cloud nativity in mind.
Thus, if you are a new person, entering the field, go with ASP.NET Core, soon everybody would be utilizing cloud-native architecture one way or another. ASP.NET MVC can teach you a lot of basic concepts, but ASP.NET Core should be learnt.
Please visit ASP.NET Documentation | Microsoft Docs
], and start learning ASP.NET Core web development framework, you can also use Visual Studio Code for development as well.