Listing out each column name is the way you need to do it in order to have an optimized query. However, that doesn't mean you need to type it all out. You've listed a number of different SQL flavors (Oracle, MySQL, MSSQL, etc.) so this will be a bit different for each but in Microsoft SQL in the Management Studio (SSMS), you can right-click on the table and say "Script Table As..." and then "SELECT To" and finally "New Query Editor Window". This will give you a full SELECT statement. Now you just need to remove your five columns and you will be set.
Another way to do this, although not free, is to use SQL Prompt from Red Gate:
This tool will give you a lot of features in SSMS. One is that when you say "SELECT *", you can hit tab twice after the star and it will give you the column names (once you have specified the table in the FROM statement).