After a little testing and research, I found this: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/5423938/html-5-geo-location-prompt-in-chrome
]. I happened to have Python installed, so I copied a test file to the Python directory, started the web server the link mentions with "python -m SimpleHTTPServer", and confirmed it worked. With my Chrome browser, I did see that Chrome was blocking the Geolocation request from the local file.
Also, another interesting link - http://thoughtresults.com/geolocation-api