I don't think you're going to be able to execute any code in your project during the compile to do this.
AFAIK, you would have to write an MSBuild extension (called a Task) to do it, then manually add this Task to your VB project file (.vbproj) in an appropriate place.
You're going to have to read up on MSBuild and Tasks
Your Task is probably going to have to do it's work in your Resources.resx file, then run a tool called ResGen to generate the Resources.Designer.vb code.
I say "probably" because I honestly don't know how to do it. All I've done is drop the files found in the My Project fold into Notepad and poked around a little bit.