You can create jobs in SQL Server, no C# or JQuery. Similar to windows scheduler, you create a job that will run daily at fixed time (or several times a day). This job executes one or more commands (can be calls to stored procedures).
See here for details
In that job you would call
status = "Overdue"
DATEDIFF('hh', date_entered , GetDate()) > 24
Note that I wrote datediff from memory, order of parameters may be different
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