Why would you want to do that? It seems awkward like you're trying to force your own will on Microsoft's tools etc. Here's why you really shouldn't do what you're asking. If you look at the Microsoft key container it looks like.
So essentially you want you're asking is for you to be able to put your own key in there and have Microsoft calculate out all these values which, in theory the algorithms probably could. However then you run the risk of not having a key which is cryptographically strong enough.
What's the real ask here? I can't think of a reason why the keys' that Microsoft gives you wouldn't be strong enough. If you really are intent on using your own keys then you should be creating your own keys and "storing" them securely, database, ACL'd file list etc. Which is really all the protection the Microsoft Key container gives you. The Microsoft key container really doesn't give you an enhanced level of protection out of the box that you couldn't do yourself. If you're intent on using your own keys, then perhaps you should be doing it yourself. If you're only requirement is to change your keys monthly there are other solutions.