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Posted 9 Nov 2015

Asp.net mvc Async File Uploading using JQuery

, 20 Nov 2016 CPOL
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File Uploading in asp.net mvc without reloading complete page using IFrame

Introduction:

In this post, we will learn how to upload file in asp.net mvc without reloading the whole page or wihtout refreshing the whole page instead we will update specific portion of page which is normally said aync postback in webforms terms.
 

Background:

Once upon a time i came across scenario where i needed to upload file in my asp.net mvc web application but its quite simple if we want full post-back, but i was thinking of doing it using Ajax by doing Partial Post-back.

Using JQuery to post standard forms is extremely simple, but when posting multi-part forms for uploading files it's not so intuitive.  This is due to browser security restrictions and sandboxing.  Today I'm going to show you how to fake an asynchronous upload without reloading the page and get a result back from the server.

 First Idea that came in my mind was using mvc helper Ajax.BeginForm and i came to know that it not supports file upload by partial post-back, it will do post-back.


Second Idea that was in my mind is to use JQuery and AJAX to post file on server so that i can avoid post-back, i tried my own way by posting file and returning partial view via AJAX but same issue was happening the partial view was rendering independently not on the same view, then i  searched on internet and found a way.

This method uses IFrame and do a fake async postback and it looks like that file uplaoding via ajax, as our view remains same.
 

How It Works

In order to make the AJAX style file uploads work, we need to to post to an iFrame.  We're going to position an iFrame off the page to hide it and then post to it.  We'll return a partial view to the page and append it in some html container.  It's important to note that due to security limitations, the page being posted to must be on the same domain as the page you're posting from. Also, this solution will be using a single hidden iFrame, but for multiple simultaneous uploads you could dynamically generate the iFrames and post to them.

Main View

Here is my view code i have created a form using mvc Helper and after the form i added an iframe in which our form will be posted:
 
@{
    ViewBag.Title = "Ajax File Uploading";
    Layout = "~/Views/Shared/_Layout.cshtml";
}

<h2>Ajax File Uploading</h2>


<div>

    <div>
        <h1>Upload File</h1>
    </div>


    @using (Html.BeginForm("Upload", "Home", FormMethod.Post,
    new
    {
        enctype = "multipart/form-data",
        id = "ImgForm",
        name = "ImgForm",
        target = "UploadTarget"
    }))
    {
        
@* DataBase Record ID as Hidden Field against which we are uplaoding file  *@
         
        @Html.Hidden("ID", 65512)
        <div style="width: 100px; margin: auto; float: left; line-height: 30px; font-weight: bold;">File</div>
     
         
        <div style="width: 200px; float: left; margin: auto;">

            <input type="file" id="uploadFile" name="file" data-val="true" data-val-required="please select a file" />
            <span id="validityMessages" style="color: Red;"></span>
        </div>

         
        <div style="clear: both;"></div>
     
        <div style="width: auto; margin-top: 3%;">
            <div style="margin: 5% 18%;">
                <input id="upload" type="button" value="Upload" name="Upload" onclick="UploadImage()" />
                <span id="uploadLoader" style="display: none;">
                    <img id="searchLoader" src="@Url.Content("~/Content/Images/loader.gif")" />Uploading Please Wait</span>
            </div>
        </div>
           
     
    }
    <div id="uploadsContainer"></div>
    <iframe id="UploadTarget" name="UploadTarget" onload="UploadImage_Complete();" style="position: absolute; left: -999em; top: -999em;"></iframe>
</div>




@section Scripts{

    <script type="text/javascript">

        $(document).ready(function () {

            $('img.delUpload').live('click', function () {

                var Id = this.id;

                var url = '@Url.Action("DeleteFile","Home")';

                url = url + "?id=" + Id
                $.get(url, function (response) {

                    $('#uploadsContainer').html(response);


                });


            });

        });


    </script>



    <script type="text/javascript">
        var isFirstLoad = true;

        function UploadImage() {



            // check for size of file not greater than 1MB
            if ($("#uploadFile").val()) {


                var iSize = ($("#uploadFile")[0].files[0].size / 1024);


                iSize = (Math.round((iSize / 1024) * 100) / 100);

                if (iSize > 4) {

                    alert("File must be less than 4MB");

                    $('span#validityMessages').html("File must be less than 4MB");



                    return;

                }
                else {
                    // on form post showing Busy Indicator
                    $('#uploadLoader').show();
                    $("#ImgForm").submit(); // post form
                    console.log(iSize + "Mb");
                }
            }

                // check for no file selected for upload

            else {


                $('span#validityMessages').html("Please select a File of size less than 4MB!");


                return;
            }


        }

        function UploadImage_Complete() {
            //Check to see if this is the first load of the iFrame
            if (isFirstLoad == true) {
                isFirstLoad = false;

            }


            $('#uploadLoader').hide();


            //Reset the image form so the file won't get uploaded again
            document.getElementById("ImgForm").reset();

            // this call will get uploads if any exists on server against this id and after successfull upload refreshing partial view to get the latest uploads
            GetFiles();


        }


        function GetFiles() {

            var url = '@Url.Action("GetFiles","Home")';

            var Id = $('input#ID').val();
            url = url + "?id=" + Id
            $.get(url, function (response) {

                $('#uploadsContainer').html(response);


            });

        }

    </script>
}
 

 Uploads ViewModel

Here is my uploads view model which is strongly typed with the uploads partial view:
 
public class UploadsViewModel
    {
        public long ID { get; set; }
        public List<file> Uploads { get; set; }

        public UploadsViewModel()
        {
            this.Uploads = new List<file>();
        }
    }


    public class File
    {
        public string FilePath { get; set; }
        public long FileID { get; set; }
        public string FileName { get; set; }
    }

Upload Controller Method

Here is my controller method, i am taking two parameters input one is the posted form, in form i am posting some values in hidden fields required for DB updates and second parameter is posted file, i am simply saving the file in Uploads directory on server and updating a table in DB using Entity Framework and at the end returning partial view which will display the uploaded file name, thumbnail if its a image type file and button for deleting the file.

For this post i am storing the state in Session:
 
[HttpPost]
public ActionResult Upload(FormCollection form, HttpPostedFileBase file)
{

    UploadsViewModel uploadsViewModel = Session["Uploads"] != null ? Session["Uploads"] as UploadsViewModel : new UploadsViewModel();


    uploadsViewModel.ID = long.Parse(form["id"]);

    File upload = new File();
    upload.FileID = uploadsViewModel.Uploads.Count + 1;
    upload.FileName = file.FileName;
    upload.FilePath = "~/Uploads/" + file.FileName;



    //if (file.ContentLength < 4048576)    we can check file size before saving if we need to restrict file size or we can check it on client side as well
    //{

        if (file != null)
        {
            file.SaveAs(Server.MapPath(upload.FilePath));
            uploadsViewModel.Uploads.Add(upload);
            Session["Uploads"] = uploadsViewModel;
        }

        // Save FileName and Path to Database according to your business requirements

    //}


    return PartialView("~/Views/Shared/_UploadsPartial.cshtml", uploadsViewModel.Uploads);
}


 

Uploads Partial View

Here is my partial view code:
 
@model List<AjaxFileUploading.ViewModels.File>
@{
    Layout = null;
    var IsAnyImage = Model.Any(x => new String[] { "jpg", "jpeg", "png", "gif" }.Contains(x.FileName.Split('.').Last()));

}


@if (Model.Any())
{
    <h3>Uploads</h3>
    <hr />
    <table style="width: 500px;">
        <tr>
            @if (IsAnyImage)
            {
                <th>Thumbnail</th>
            }
            <th>FileName</th>
            <th>Action</th>
        </tr>
        <tbody>
            @for(int i=0; i< Model.Count; i++)

            {

                <tr>

                    
                        <td style="text-align: center;">
                            <img width="60" src="@Url.Content(Model[i].FilePath)" />

                        </td>
                    
                    

                    <td style="text-align: center;">
                        <a href="@Url.Content("~/Uploads/" + Model[i].FileName)" target="_blank">@Model[i].FileName</a></td>
                    <td style="text-align: center;">
                        <img id="@Model[i].FileID" class="delUpload" width="20" src="@Url.Content("~/Content/Images/delete.png")" /></td>
                </tr>
            }
        </tbody>
    </table>

}
else
{
    <h3>No Uploads Found!</h3>
}
 

Javascript and Jquery for MainView

The first thing we need to do is include a version of jQuery.  Since I'm writing an MVC application, I've chosen to use bundles that are provided by the framework, so you will see follwing line written in master layout _Layout.cshtml which is located in Views >> Shared  directory:
 
@Scripts.Render("~/bundles/jquery")

Now we can start creating our JavaScript to handle our form posts.  The UploadImage() method isn't absolutely necessary since all our example does is post the form, however as in my case i am displaying a busy indicator so that user is acknowledged that  file is uploading.  Here we're just going to create a global variable that tells whether or not we're on the first load of the iFrame and the function to upload the image:


Now the form is setup to post to our iFrame. Here is the code which checks if any file exists against this record already it is displayed and validation is also applied in this event, actually this event will be called when iframe will load, on first pageload also iframe load event is called so thats why i have put validation code as well here, i am just checking by flag is it a first load of iframe or not, if it's not first load then it means user is uploading file and  we may want to validate on file size, i am not allowing file greater than 4MB, you can also check here for file extension as well, may be you just want to allow user to upload images so in this function you can check that as well if you  want to check on specific type of files to be just uploaded :
 
<script type="text/javascript">
        var isFirstLoad = true;

        function UploadImage() {



            // check for size of file not greater than 1MB
            if ($("#uploadFile").val()) {


                var iSize = ($("#uploadFile")[0].files[0].size / 1024);


                iSize = (Math.round((iSize / 1024) * 100) / 100);

                if (iSize > 4) {

                    alert("File must be less than 4MB");

                    $('span#validityMessages').html("File must be less than 4MB");



                    return;

                }
                else {
                    // on form post showing Busy Indicator
                    $('#uploadLoader').show();

                    console.log(iSize + "Mb");
                }
            }

                // check for no file selected for upload

            else {


                $('span#validityMessages').html("Please select a File of size less than 4MB!");


                return;
            }


        }

        function UploadImage_Complete() {
            //Check to see if this is the first load of the iFrame
            if (isFirstLoad == true) {
                isFirstLoad = false; 

            }


            $('#uploadLoader').hide();


            //Reset the image form so the file won't get uploaded again
            document.getElementById("ImgForm").reset();

            // this call will get uploads if any exists on server against this id and after successfull upload refreshing partial view to get the latest uploads
            GetFiles();


        }

</script>    

and at last here is the deleting of file using ajax:
 
$(document).ready(function () {

    $('img.delUpload').live('click', function () {

        var Id = this.id;

        var url = '@Url.Action("DeleteFile","Home")';

        url = url + "?id=" + Id
        $.get(url, function (response) {

            $('#uploadsContainer').html(response);


        });


    });

});
 

Delete File Controller Method

 Here is the Delete File Action:
 
public ActionResult DeleteFile(long id)
{

    /* Use input Id to delete the record from db logically by setting IsDeleted bit in your table or delete it physically whatever is suitable for you
       for DEMO purpose i am stroing it in Session */

    UploadsViewModel viewModel = Session["Uploads"] as UploadsViewModel;

    File file = viewModel.Uploads.Single(x => x.FileID == id);

    try
    {

        System.IO.File.Delete(Server.MapPath(file.FilePath));
        viewModel.Uploads.Remove(file);

    }

    catch (Exception)
    {
        return PartialView("~/Views/Shared/_UploadsPartial.cshtml", viewModel.Uploads);
    }



    return PartialView("~/Views/Shared/_UploadsPartial.cshtml", viewModel.Uploads);
}

and GetFiles actions looks like :
public ActionResult GetFiles(long Id)
{
    UploadsViewModel viewModel = Session["Uploads"] as UploadsViewModel;

    return PartialView("~/Views/Shared/_UploadsPartial.cshtml", (viewModel == null ? new UploadsViewModel().Uploads : viewModel.Uploads));
}


I have created a sample project to demonstrate it.The screen shot is attached:
 

You can download sample source code from here
 

Download Source Code (AjaxFileUploading.zip) 


Hope you will get the understanding how its working, for reference from where i got help you can also visit this link for more details: AJAX File Uploads with jQuery and MVC 3

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)

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About the Author

Ehsan Sajjad
Software Developer
Pakistan Pakistan
Ehsan Sajjad is a Microsoft Certified Professional and Microsoft Certified Solutions Developer having more than 4 years of experience in developing web, desktop and mobile applications using c#, jquery, javascript, sql, asp.net, asp.net-mvc

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Comments and Discussions

 
QuestionIs there any third party tool available for multiple file upload? Pin
Member 1313840019-Apr-17 4:13
memberMember 1313840019-Apr-17 4:13 
AnswerRe: Is there any third party tool available for multiple file upload? Pin
Ehsan Sajjad19-Apr-17 4:19
professionalEhsan Sajjad19-Apr-17 4:19 
GeneralIframes are very bad and not supported on mobile Pin
TechnoDezi21-Nov-16 23:36
memberTechnoDezi21-Nov-16 23:36 
GeneralMy Vote Of 5 Pin
Ahmet Abdi21-Nov-16 6:09
memberAhmet Abdi21-Nov-16 6:09 
Praisevery useful Pin
M,AqibShehzad21-Nov-16 6:06
professionalM,AqibShehzad21-Nov-16 6:06 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pin
Humayun Kabir Mamun20-Aug-16 20:42
memberHumayun Kabir Mamun20-Aug-16 20:42 
GeneralRe: My vote of 5 Pin
Ehsan Sajjad21-Aug-16 23:27
professionalEhsan Sajjad21-Aug-16 23:27 
QuestionSave File for redisplay to database Pin
Troy Bryant22-Jan-16 9:47
memberTroy Bryant22-Jan-16 9:47 
AnswerRe: Save File for redisplay to database Pin
Ehsan Sajjad24-Jan-16 1:00
professionalEhsan Sajjad24-Jan-16 1:00 
AnswerRe: Save File for redisplay to database Pin
Afzaal Ahmad Zeeshan21-Nov-16 1:37
mvpAfzaal Ahmad Zeeshan21-Nov-16 1:37 
GeneralRe: Save File for redisplay to database Pin
Ehsan Sajjad21-Nov-16 2:26
professionalEhsan Sajjad21-Nov-16 2:26 

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