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Posted 22 Nov 2011

Declarative multithreading

, 13 Mar 2012
An introduction and proof of concept code for the idea of declarative multi threading in C#.
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Reflection;
using System.Reflection.Emit;

namespace ThreadBound
    /// <summary>
    /// Creates a proxy class that wraps an interface inside a ContextBoundObject derived class.
    /// </summary>
    class InterfaceProxyGenerator
        /// <summary>
        /// Global Cache for all created wrapper types. This prevents creating the same wrapper over and
        /// over again.
        /// </summary>
        private static readonly Dictionary<Type, Type> Wrappers = new Dictionary<Type, Type>();

        /// <summary>
        /// Module-Builder that is used for the creation of the wrappers.
        /// </summary>
        private static readonly ModuleBuilder ModBuilder;

        /// <summary>
        /// Static c'tor that creates the dynamic assembly and the dynamic module used for generating the proxy classes.
        /// </summary>
        static InterfaceProxyGenerator()
            //-- There's only one assembly and one module used for all dynamic wrappers.
            AssemblyBuilder AssBuilder = AppDomain.CurrentDomain.DefineDynamicAssembly(new AssemblyName("ProxyGeneratorAssembly"), AssemblyBuilderAccess.Run);
            ModBuilder = AssBuilder.DefineDynamicModule("ProxyGenerator");

        /// <summary>
        /// Creates a c'tor that takes a reference to a real interface as an input parameter and saves this reference within the supplied realObject-Field.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="newType">The type-builder that should be used to create the new type.</param>
        /// <param name="realObjectField">Information of the field that recieves the reference to the real interface.</param>
        /// <param name="interfaceType">Type of the interface that should be used for the c'tors parameter and is also the type of the realObject field.</param>
        static private void GenerateProxyCtor(TypeBuilder newType, FieldInfo realObjectField, Type interfaceType)
            //-- Create the c'tor with one parameter. It takes a reference to the interface that should be called by the wrapper.
            Type[] ctorArgs = { interfaceType };
            ConstructorBuilder cBuilder = newType.DefineConstructor(MethodAttributes.Public | MethodAttributes.HideBySig | MethodAttributes.SpecialName | MethodAttributes.RTSpecialName, CallingConventions.Standard, ctorArgs);

            //-- Now emit the method body.
            ILGenerator ilGen = cBuilder.GetILGenerator();

            //-- Push the this reference and call the default c'tor of the base class
            ilGen.Emit(OpCodes.Call, newType.BaseType.GetConstructor(BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Instance, null, System.Type.EmptyTypes, null));

            //-- Now push this and the first parameter (the reference to the real interface) onto the stack.
            //   The interface reference is then written to the realObjectReference via the stfld op-code.
            ilGen.Emit(OpCodes.Stfld, realObjectField);


        /// <summary>
        /// Creates a proxy method that forwards all calls and all call parameters to the real object.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="newType">Type builder instance that is used to create the new method.</param>
        /// <param name="realObjectFieldInfo">FieldInfo for the field that contains the reference to the real interface.</param>
        /// <param name="interfaceType">Type of the interface for which to implement the proxy method. It is used to create the explicit decleration of the method name.</param>
        /// <param name="method">Information about the method to proxy. This defines all properties of the proxy method.</param>
        static private void GenerateProxyMethod(TypeBuilder newType, FieldInfo realObjectFieldInfo, Type interfaceType, MethodInfo method)
            System.Byte paramCount = 0;
            List<Type> paramTypes = new List<Type>();

            //-- Create a list of all parameters of the interface.
            //   Increment a count because we need the number of parameters later.
            foreach (ParameterInfo parameter in method.GetParameters())

            //-- Define the method for the interface.
            MethodBuilder mBuilder = newType.DefineMethod(interfaceType.Name + "." + method.Name, MethodAttributes.Public | MethodAttributes.HideBySig | MethodAttributes.NewSlot | MethodAttributes.Virtual | MethodAttributes.Final, method.ReturnType, paramTypes.ToArray());

            //-- Now emit the method body.
            ILGenerator ilGen = mBuilder.GetILGenerator();

            //-- Push this onto the stack and then use ldfld to get the real interface's reference out of the
            //   field referenced by realObjectFieldInfo.
            //   After this operation the this reference has been removed and the real interface's reference is onto the stack.
            ilGen.Emit(OpCodes.Ldfld, realObjectFieldInfo);

            //-- Now push all parameters onto the stack. For this the ldarg_S op-code is used
            //   because it is the most generic opcode. Eventho it uses a little more memory.
            for (System.Byte i = 1; i <= paramCount; i++)
                ilGen.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_S, i);

            //-- Now call the original method. The this reference on the stack is the reference
            //   to the real interface.
            ilGen.Emit(OpCodes.Callvirt, method);

            //-- Now override the interface's method decleration with the real implementation.
            newType.DefineMethodOverride(mBuilder, method);

        /// <summary>
        /// Creates a wrapper of an interface. This wrapper will be derived from ContextBoundObject so it can be 
        /// intercepted as needed. The proxy will just call the original implementation for each of the interface's
        /// methods. This allows intercepting any interface regardless of the dependencies of the real class.
        /// </summary>
        /// <typeparam name="T">Type of the interface.</typeparam>
        /// <param name="realObject">Reference to the real object that implementes the interface that should be proxied.</param>
        /// <returns>An instance of the proxy class just created. This class will be derived from ContextBoundObject and MarshalByRefObject.</returns>
        static public MarshalByRefObject CreateProxy<T>(T realObject) where T : class 
            Type wrapperType;

            if (!typeof(T).IsInterface)
                throw new ArgumentException("T is not an interface.");

            //-- Check if the type is already cached. If it is, don't create a new one.
            if (!Wrappers.ContainsKey(typeof(T)))
                AssemblyName assName = new AssemblyName("ProxyGeneratorAssembly");
                AssemblyBuilder assBuilder = AppDomain.CurrentDomain.DefineDynamicAssembly(assName, AssemblyBuilderAccess.Run);
                ModuleBuilder modBuilder = assBuilder.DefineDynamicModule("Module" + typeof(T).Name);

                //-- Create the proxy type.
                TypeBuilder newType = modBuilder.DefineType("DynProxy" + typeof(T).Name, TypeAttributes.Public | TypeAttributes.AutoClass | TypeAttributes.BeforeFieldInit, typeof(ContextBoundObject));

                //-- Now add the interface type to the class's definition. This way we can cast the proxy to the real interface.

                //-- Create the realObject-field that stores the reference to the real interface.
                FieldBuilder realObjectField = newType.DefineField("realObject", typeof(T), FieldAttributes.Private);

                //-- Create a c'tor that accepts a reference to the real interface.
                GenerateProxyCtor(newType, realObjectField, typeof(T));

                //-- Now create a proxy method for each method of the interface.
                foreach (MethodInfo method in typeof(T).GetMethods())
                    GenerateProxyMethod(newType, realObjectField, typeof(T), method);

                //-- Create the new type and add it to the cache
                wrapperType = newType.CreateType();
                Wrappers.Add(typeof(T), wrapperType);
                //-- If the type is already in the cache, get it.

            return (MarshalByRefObject)Activator.CreateInstance(wrapperType, realObject);

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