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Posted 9 Dec 2002

.NET Dynamic Software Load Balancing

, 9 Dec 2002
A Draft Implementation of an Idea for .NET Dynamic Software Load Balancing
// .NET Dynamic Software Load Balancing
// A Draft Implementation of an Idea for .NET Dynamic Software Load Balancing
// (c) 2002, Stoyan Damov (
// The software comes �AS IS�, with all faults and no warranties.

#pragma once
#if !defined (Common_H)
#define Common_H

// .NET method access modifiers
// C# access term:)	assembly	class
#define PUBLIC		public		public
#define PRIVATE		private		private
#define PROTECTED	public		protected
#define INTERNAL	private		public

// tired of writing "unsigned char buf __gc [] = new unsigned char __gc[...]"
typedef unsigned char byte;

// configuration file name -- same for MLMS and MLRS
#define CONFIG_FILE_NAME				S"LoadBalancingConfiguration.xml"

// Configuration Sections (CS)
#define CS_LMS							S"LoadMonitoringServer"
#define CS_LRS							S"LoadReportingServer"

// Configuration Keys (CK)

// for the Load Reporting Server (LRS)
// the interval in milliseconds at which the MLRS reports the machine
// load to MLMS
#define CK_LRS_INTERVAL					S"ReportingInterval"
// the IP address of the multicast group, which MLRS joins in order
// to report machine loads to all "listening" MLMS; if multicasting
// is disabled, it is the IP address of a single MLMS server, to which
// MLRS sends machine loads
#define CK_LRS_IP_ADDRESS				S"IpAddress"
// the port, MLRS sends machine loads to, no matter whether it is using
// multicasts, UDP-only or TCP
#define CK_LRS_PORT						S"Port"

// for the Load Monitoring Server (LMS)
// the IP address of the multicast group, MLMS joins in order to receive
// machine loads; if multicasting is disabled, it is not used, as MLMS
// binds to any available IP address on the local machine
#define CK_LMS_IP_ADDRESS				S"IpAddress"
// the port of the multicast group, and the port MLMS listens to if
// multicasting and UDP are disabled
#define CK_LMS_COLLECTOR_PORT			S"CollectorPort"
// the backlog (the maximum number of sockets), MLMS uses if it is
// using TCP (no multicasting and UDP)
#define CK_LMS_COLLECTOR_BACKLOG		S"CollectorBacklog"
// the port on which MLMS listens and accepts TCP queries for the
// least loaded machine; I used it in the first version of the LML
// library, but since I'm using Remoting to publish this information
// you may forget "ReporterPort" and "ReporterBacklog", unless you
// wish to extend the LML library to report machine loads via Remoting
// and by answering TCP queries
#define CK_LMS_REPORTER_PORT			S"ReporterPort"
// the backlog of the ReporterWorker's listener, accepting TCP
// requests
#define CK_LMS_REPORTER_BACKLOG			S"ReporterBacklog"
// the maximum time in milliseconds, at which a machine should report
// a fresh load; i.e. if a machine reports a load now, and it does not
// report a new load in "MachineReportTimeout" milliseconds, the machine
// is considered dead, and is removed from the load balancing, until the
// next time it reports a new load
#define CK_LMS_MACHINE_REPORT_TIMEOUT	S"MachineReportTimeout"
// initially, I thought to register the load balancing object with the
// Remoting runtime, only on a TCP channel; however, later I decided to
// support both TCP and HTTP; so the "RemotingProtocol" is a string, 
// which is either "HTTP" or "TCP"
#define CK_LMS_REMOTING_PROTOCOL		S"RemotingProtocol"
// the port, on which the Remoting runtime accepts requests for 
// the creation of the load balancing object
#define CK_LMS_REMOTING_CHANNEL_PORT	S"RemotingChannelPort"

// Remoting channels (protocols)
#define	CHANNEL_TCP						S"tcp"
#define	CHANNEL_HTTP					S"http"

// the alias of the load balancing object, used by the Remoting runtime
// and the client library LBL
#define REMOTED_OBJECT_NAME				S"LoadBalancer"

// message parts defined to avoid hardcoding of strings
#define MSG_PART_OK						S"+OK"
#define MSG_PART_MACH					S"MACH"
#define MSG_PART_LOAD					S"LOAD"

// I love C++'s macro support! And I really don't like people who
// preach that macros are bad. Macros are good, save a whole lot
// of typing and errors, resulting from Object-Oriented Copy/Pasting:)

// Here's just a simple example of a good macro: the Assert method of
// the Debug class accepts a boolean expression to evaluate, and a
// string which describes the test, so if the test fails, the string
// is output in the assert message box. Well, imagine if I had to write
// every time the same expression in quotes, in order to see it in the
// message box, i.e. Debug::Assert (0 != someObject, S"0 != someObject");
// Now look at the super simple macro, that does the same thing for me
// automatically.
#define	DEBUG_ASSERT(x)	Debug::Assert (x, S#x)

// Here's another good macro, I use for exception handling:
// Rule of a thumb for exception handling: catch only the exceptions
// you can handle, and no more. This means that if you expect the method
// you're calling to throw "ArgumentNullException" and/or 
// "ArgumentOutOfRangeException", you should write two catch clauses and
// catch only these exceptions. Another rule is to NEVER swallow an exception
// you caught, but cannot handle. You MUST re-throw it, so the caller of
// YOUR method knows why it failed. There are 2 exceptions you can do nothing
// about but report them to the user and die: these are "OutOfMemoryException",
// and "ExecutionEngineException". I don't know which one is worse -- probably
// the latter, though if you're out of memory, there's almost nothing you can
// do about it. Now, because I'm not writing production code here, I allowed
// myself to catch ALL possible exceptions, when I don't need to handle them
// except to know something wrong has happened. So I catch the base class
// "Exception". This violates both rules, I've written about exception 
// handling, but I wrote some code to fit into the second one -- if I catch
// OutOfMemoryException or ExecutionEngineException, I re-throw them 
// immediately. Here's the macro I call, after I catch the generic Exception
// class:
	System::Type __gc* exType = e->GetType ();			\
	if (exType == __typeof (OutOfMemoryException) ||	\
		exType == __typeof (ExecutionEngineException))	\
		throw;											\
	Console::WriteLine (								\
		S"\n{0}\n{1} ({2}/{3}): {4}\n{0}",				\
		new String (L'-', 79),							\
		new String ((char *) __FUNCTION__),				\
		new String ((char *) __FILE__),					\
		__box (__LINE__),								\

// forward class declaration macro, that "remembers" to wrap the class
// in the namespace I use throughout the solution;
#define FORWARD_DECLARE(className)				\
	namespace SoftwareLoadBalancing				\
	{											\
		public __gc class className;			\
// I think the macro is self-explanatory, but I need to say, that the
// interval is measured in microseconds, not milliseconds

// the time, a "listener" thread waits, before it checks for an arrived
// network requests (in milliseconds)

// long live macros!:)
#define SOCKET_CLOSE(sock)							\
	try												\
	{												\
		if (0 != sock)								\
		{											\
			sock->Shutdown (SocketShutdown::Both);	\
			sock->Close ();							\
			sock = 0;								\
		}											\
	}												\
	catch (SocketException __gc*) {}				\
	catch (ObjectDisposedException __gc*) {}
// undefine the USING_UDP macro to make LRS report to LMS via TCP
#define USING_UDP			1

// undefine the USING_MULTICASTS macro to disable multicasting

// helper macros for protocol-independent coding
#define SOCKET_CREATE_TCP(sock)					\
	sock = new Socket (							\
		AddressFamily::InterNetwork,			\
		SocketType::Stream,						\
#define SOCKET_CREATE_UDP(sock)					\
	sock = new Socket (							\
		AddressFamily::InterNetwork,			\
		SocketType::Dgram,						\

#define QUEUE_TCP_REQUEST(cls,svr,clientSock)	\
	ThreadPool::QueueUserWorkItem (				\
		new WaitCallback (						\
			this, 								\
			&cls::HandleTcpRequest),			\
		new WorkerTcpState (svr, clientSock))

// there's no need to queue a user work item in the ThreadPool
// in case we use UDP and multicasting, so we will call the method
// synchronously
#define QUEUE_UDP_REQUEST(svr,clientSock,listenSock)		\
	HandleUdpRequest (new WorkerUdpState (svr, listenSock))
#define SOCKET_SEND_TCP(sock,endPoint,buffer)	\
	sock->Connect (endPoint);					\
	sock->Send (buffer)

#define SOCKET_SEND_UDP(sock,endPoint,buffer)	\
	sock->SendTo (buffer, endPoint)

// preprocessor code to enable TCP instead of UDP or disable multicasting
#if !defined(USING_UDP) // using TCP
#	define SOCKET_LISTEN(sock,backlog) sock->Listen (backlog)
#	define SOCKET_ACCEPT(sock,clientSock)		\
		Socket __gc* clientSock = sock->Accept ()
#	define QUEUE_SOCKET_REQUEST(cls,svr,clientSock,listenSock) \
		QUEUE_TCP_REQUEST (cls, svr, clientSock)
#	define SOCKET_SEND(sock,endPoint,buffer) \
		SOCKET_SEND_TCP (sock, endPoint, buffer)
#	define SOCKET_ADD_MEMBERSHIP(sock,multicastIpAddress) \
		(void) 0
#	define SOCKET_DROP_MEMBERSHIP(sock,multicastIpAddress) \
		(void) 0
#else  // using UDP
#	define SOCKET_LISTEN(sock,backlog) (void) 0
#	define SOCKET_ACCEPT(sock,clientSock) (void) 0
#	define QUEUE_SOCKET_REQUEST(cls,svr,clientSock,listenSock) \
		QUEUE_UDP_REQUEST (svr, clientSock, listenSock)
#	define SOCKET_SEND(sock,endPoint,buffer) \
		SOCKET_SEND_UDP (sock, endPoint, buffer)
#	if !defined (USING_MULTICASTS)
#		define SOCKET_ADD_MEMBERSHIP(sock,multicastIpAddress) (void) 0
#		define SOCKET_DROP_MEMBERSHIP(sock,multicastIpAddress) (void) 0
#	else // multicasting enabled
#		define SOCKET_ADD_MEMBERSHIP(sock,multicastIpAddress)	\
			try													\
			{													\
				sock->SetSocketOption (							\
					SocketOptionLevel::IP,						\
					SocketOptionName::AddMembership,			\
					new MulticastOption (						\
						multicastIpAddress,						\
						IPAddress::Any));						\
			}													\
			catch (SocketException __gc*)						\
			{													\
#		define SOCKET_DROP_MEMBERSHIP(sock,multicastIpAddress)	\
			try													\
			{													\
				sock->SetSocketOption (							\
					SocketOptionLevel::IP,						\
					SocketOptionName::DropMembership,			\
					new MulticastOption (						\
						multicastIpAddress,						\
						IPAddress::Any));						\
			}													\
			catch (SocketException __gc*)						\
			{													\

#endif // Common_H

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About the Author

Stoyan Damov
Web Developer
Bulgaria Bulgaria
I'm crazy about programming, bleeding-edge technologies and my wife, Irina. Thinking seriously to start living in Centurian time.

The image shows me, happy :P

My blog

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