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Posted 17 May 2003

The case for a channel-schema concept

, 17 May 2003
An article about .NET remoting channel schemas
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		<!--  Fill in the details (CodeProject will reformat this section for you) --><pre>Title:      The case for a channel-schema concept
Author:      Wytek Szymanski 
Environment: .net framework
Keywords:    .net remoting
Level:       Intermediate"
Description: An article about .net remoting channel schemas
		<!-------------------------------     STEP 2      --------------------------->
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		A .net remoting channel can be extended in many different ways, providing 
		encryption, transformation, logging, etc. For a client that wants to 
		communicate with many remote servers there is no direct way to choose the 
		appropriate channel for the appropriate remote server. A channel is a chain of 
		sinks where each sink serves a purpose. Thinking of channel schemas helps to 
		distinguish one channel from the other.
		The .net remoting framework provides that clients and servers use channels for 
		the exchange of messages. Two principal parts must always be considered when 
		selecting a channel, the formatter sink and the transport sink, together 
		constituting a channel schema. The .net remoting framework readily provides two 
		channel schemas, one that employs a binary formatter with a tcp transport, and 
		another that employs a soap formatter with an http transport.
		<P>The concept of a .net remoting channel schema is regrettably not well accepted 
			in the .net remoting framework. But combining the out-of-the-box transports and 
			formatters four channel schemas can be established.</P>
			1. Tcp transport and binary formatter
			2. Http transport and soap formatter
			3. Tcp transport and soap formatter
		4. Http transport and binary formatter
		<p>The third and fourth channels are obtained by setting the configuration entries 
			like so:
  &lt;channel name="Two way http-binary server channel" port="9090" ref="http"&gt;
      &lt;formatter ref="binary" /&gt;
      &lt;formatter ref="binary" /&gt;
  &lt;channel name="Two way tcp-soap server channel" port="9000" ref="tcp"&gt;
      &lt;formatter ref="soap" /&gt;
      &lt;formatter ref="soap" /&gt;
		<p>But why use channel schemas other then the out-of-the-box ones? The Tcp channels 
			are touted for better performance because they employ the binary formatter that 
			serializes the messages into much smaller streams. The Http channels are touted 
			for their ability to get through firewalls. It makes good sense to combine an 
			Http channel with a binary formatter. Indeed, the performance of an http-binary 
			channel is as good as a tcp-binary channel. Either channel transfers the 
			message data by sending or receiving a series of transport headers together 
			with the serialized message data. The only difference is that the http channel 
			arranges and decorates the transport headers in compliance with the http 
			protocol whereas the tcp channels decorate the transport headers with a 
			signature, version number, and other magic numbers. Finally, it is all TCP/IP 
			or sockets that transfers the messages across the network.
		<p>In one of my previous articles I have described the dilemma of picking a channel 
			when multiple channels all of the same transport but with different formatters 
			are registered. <a href="">
				Read my previous article here.</a> In this article I will revisit that 
			problem but in a somewhat more thorough way.</p>
		<h2>The bi-directional channel dilemma</h2>
		<p>A client application typically registers bi-directional channels, e.g. <code>TcpChannel</code>
			or <code>HttpChannel</code> , if it wants to pass a callback object. Here is 
			some sample client code.
		<pre>//implemented on the server
public RemoteObject : MarshalByRefObject {
	public void CallMe(Callback cb) {
		String ret = cb.Callback(�Hello�);

// implemented on the client
public CallbackObject : MarshalByRefObject {
	public String Callback(String msg) {
		return "Message received: " + msg;

CallbackObject callbackObject = new CallbackObject();

String url = "http://localhost:8000/KnossosObject.rem";
RemoteObjec remoteObj = (RemoteObject)RemotingServices.Connect(typeof(RemoteObject), url);

// call the remote server
		<p>To make this work, the client and server must each register at least one 
			bi-directional http channel. The client and server could than be calling each 
			in turn using that same channel. But what if the client and the server have 
			each registered two or more bi-directional channels? This is a very realistic 
			scenario where a client needs to talk to two different servers and where the 
			servers may have to serve their clients over different channel. The interesting 
			question is: Would a client that calls a server via the http channel also be 
			called back via that same http channel? The answer is: If client and server 
			each have registered a <code>TcpChannel</code> and an <code>HttpChannel</code> there 
			is a fair chance that the server may use a different channel to execute the 
			callback on, possibly presenting a dilemma where a client initiates the 
			communication via the faster <code>TcpChannel</code> yet the server calls back 
			the client via the slower <code>HttpChannel</code>. To see why this may happen 
			let me explain how the server actually learns about the client�s callback 
		<p>A callback object is always a subclass of <code>MarshalByRefObject</code>. When 
			it is passed as a parameter to a method call it is marshalled into a 
			serializable reference object. Once the client side formatter realizes that a 
			method parameter is an object of type <code>MarshalByRefObject</code> it 
			converts it to an <code>ObjRef</code> before serializing it to the message 
			stream. This conversion is performed by the <code>RemotingServices</code>. One 
			effect of the conversion is that the <code>ObjRef</code> type object has been 
			provided with channel data that has embedded in it the addresses of every 
			registered server channel.
		<pre>// create the callback object
CallbackObject callback = new CallbackObject();

// convert to ObjRef
ObjRef objRef = RemotingServices.Marshal(callback);

// get at the channel data
Object[] channelData = objRef.ChannelInfo.ChannelData;

foreach(Object data in channelData) {

&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; // look for a ChannelDataStore
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; if(data is ChannelDataStore) {
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; // get at the channel URIs
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; String[] channelUris = ((ChannelDataStore)data).ChannelUris;

&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; // print each uri, the client�s server channel address
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; foreach(String uri in channelUris)
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Console.WriteLine(uri); // 
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; }
		<p>If two http channels have been registered than this is the output showing the 
			local endpoints with identical network addresses but different listening ports. 
			This is part of the channel data that the server receives on the other side. 
			The server must choose one of the URLs when calling the client back.
		<p>The <code>RemoringServices.CreateEnvoyAndChannelSinks</code> method makes this 
			choice on behalf of the server. Before connecting to the server, the 
			RemotingServices attempts to create a message sink. It does so by presenting 
			the embedded channel data to the <code>ChannelServices.CreateMessageSink</code> 
			method. The code snippet below illustrates this and it is actual source code of 
			the .net remoting framework.
		<pre>// RemotingServices.CreateEnvoyAndChannelSinks 

// Extract the channel from the channel data and name embedded
// inside the objectRef
Object[] channelData = objectRef.ChannelInfo.ChannelData;
if (channelData != null) {
   for (int i = 0; i &lt; channelData.Length; i++)
      // Get the first availabe sink           
      chnlSink = ChannelServices.CreateMessageSink(channelData[i]);
      if(null != chnlSink)
		<p>Eventually, the ChannelServices tries every registered sender channel. Here is 
			the actual source code of the .net remoting infrastructure.
		<pre>// ChannelServices.CreateMessageSink
internal static IMessageSink CreateMessageSink(Object data)
   String objectUri;
   return CreateMessageSink(null, data, out objectUri);
} // CreateMessageSink
internal static IMessageSink CreateMessageSink(String url, Object data, out String objectURI) 
   IMessageSink msgSink = null;

    RegisteredChannelList regChnlList = s_registeredChannels;
    int count = regChnlList.Count;
    for(int i = 0; i &lt; count; i++)
            IChannelSender chnl = (IChannelSender)regChnlList.GetChannel(i);
             msgSink = chnl.CreateMessageSink(url, data, out objectURI);
             if(msgSink != null)
    return msgSink;
} // CreateMessageSink
		<p>A message sink may be created providing that the URL is one of the known types, 
			one that starts with either <code>"tcp://"</code> or <code>"http://"</code>. 
			If, for example, two http sender channels are registered than the first one 
			that matches the <code>"http://"</code> at the starts of the URL will create 
			the message sink. The problem here is that the first best sender channel may 
			not be provided with the desired formatter. That is one crux of my 
			channel-schema proposition. Register any two channel of the same type, one 
			provided with a soap formatter the other provided with a binary formatter, and 
			the system will become confused.
		<p>The other crux of my channel-schema proposition lies in the fact that the 
			bi-directional channels are not very bi-directional. In fact, the <code>TcpChannel</code>
			or the <code>HttpChannel</code> are only loose associations of the client and 
			server channels, or just a convenient short cut to registering the client and 
			server channels explicitly. For example, the following configuration file 
			entries are equivalent.
		<pre>&lt;channel ref="tcp" /&gt;

// or alternatively

&lt;channel ref="tcp client" /&gt;
&lt;channel ref="tcp server" /&gt;</pre>
		<p>Let us assume that the client and the server have registered one tcp channel and 
			one http channel each.
		<pre>// the client�s config entries
&lt;channel ref="tcp" /&gt;
&lt;channel ref="http" /&gt;

// the servers�s config entries
&lt;channel ref="http" /&gt;
&lt;channel ref="tcp" /&gt;</pre>
		<p>And considering the client code like so.</p>
		<pre>String url = "tcp://remoteserver:8000/MyObject.rem";
MyObject obj = (MyObject)RemotingServices.Connect(typeof(MyObject), url);

// create a callback object, one that derives from MarshalByRefObject
CallbackObject callback = new CallbackObject();

// and make a call
		<p>The URL will cause the client to select a tcp channel with its default binary 
			formatter. The callback object will eventually transfer embedded in its channel 
			data the URLs for the tcp and http server channels, which are two URLs. When 
			the server calls back we would naturally want it to call back on the same 
			channel that the request was initiated first, that was the tcp channel. But a 
			message sink must be created on the server�s side before any callback can be 
			made. And, as we have seen before, the remoting services will create the first 
			best message sink that matches the first best URL. In other words, the server�s 
			callback may be executing on the other channel, the http one. Add to it 
			additional channels with alternate formatters and the whole thing becomes even 
			more confusing. The concept of a channel schema, in my opinion, is thoroughly 
		<h2>A channel schema implementation</h2>
		<p>As I have already pointed out, the existing framework does not offer the 
			opportunity to specify a particular communication channel. So, I have tried to 
			provide one. Please download the source code to inspect the implementation.
		<p>The implementation involves a client channel sink provider that is hooked as an 
			interceptor into the client provider chain. After some experimenting and 
			thinking, I decided to modify the channel information in the URL like this.

		<p>The installed and intercepting sink providers could easily recognize the desired 
			schema and create the appropriate message sinks. But the sender channels reject 
			anything but �tcp://� and http://. The solution to this is a custom 
			implementation of the bi-directional tcp and http channels. The modified URL 
			can in this way be intercepted and rewritten to the expectation of the standard 
			client channels.
		<pre>// IChannelSender interface
public IMessageSink CreateMessageSink(
    String url, 
    Object remoteChannelData,
    out String objectUri) {

    if(url != null) {
        // client sending a request to server
        // remove the formatter part 'binary'
        // as in 'tcp-binary://server:port/object.rem'
        int index = url.IndexOf("://");
        String schema = url.Substring(0, index);
        int n = schema.IndexOf('-');
        if(n != -1) {
             url = schema.Substring(0, n) + url.Substring(index);
             <STRONG>remoteChannelData = schema.Substring(n);</STRONG>
    if(remoteChannelData is ChannelDataStore) {
        // server calling the client back
        ChannelDataStore channelDataStore = (ChannelDataStore)remoteChannelData;
        url = channelDataStore.ChannelUris[0];
        // remove the formatter part 'binary'
        // as in tcp-binary://server:port/object.rem
        int index = url.IndexOf("://");
        String schema = url.Substring(0, index);
        int n = schema.IndexOf('-');
        if(n != -1) {
            url = schema.Substring(0, n) + url.Substring(index);
            String[] channelURIs = new String[] { url, schema.Substring(n) };
            <STRONG>remoteChannelData = new ChannelDataStore(channelURIs);</STRONG>

     // pass it on to the standard TcpClientChannel/HttpClientChannel
     return _clientChannel.CreateMessageSink(url, <STRONG>remoteChannelData</STRONG>, out objectUri);
} // CreateMessageSink</pre>
		<p>The trick here is to pass the formatter specification as a remoteCchannelData 
			parameter to the CreateSink method, as I had already described in one of my 
			previous articles.
		<pre>public IClientChannelSink CreateSink(
    IChannelSender channel,
    String url,
    Object remoteChannelData) {

    int index = url.IndexOf(':');
    if(index == -1)
        throw new RemotingException("No channel url specified.");

    <STRONG>String channelSchema = url.Substring(0,index);</STRONG>
    <STRONG>String formatter = remoteChannelData as String;</STRONG>
    if(formatter == null) {
        // this is the server's callback 
        // take the hint from the ChannelDataStore
        ChannelDataStore channelDataStore = remoteChannelData as ChannelDataStore;
        if(channelDataStore == null)
            throw new RemotingException("Cannot identify channel schema.");
        <STRONG>formatter = channelDataStore.ChannelUris[1];</STRONG>

    <STRONG>channelSchema += formatter;
    if(String.Compare(channelSchema, _channelSchema, true) != 0)
        return null; // channel schema does not match</STRONG>  

    IClientChannelSink nextSink = null;
    if(_nextSinkProvider != null) {
        nextSink = _nextSinkProvider.CreateSink(channel, url, remoteChannelData);
        if(nextSink == null)
            return null;

    return new ClientChannelSink(nextSink, _serverUrl);
		<p>All the trickery is about passing the formatter information around.
		<p>To be certain that the server will make the callback to the same channel that 
			the initial request was posted, the client channel must examine the method 
			arguments before the request is posted. For every method argument that is an 
			object derived from MarshalByRefObject the channel data is rewritten so that 
			only the desired channel address is made available. In this way we can be 
			certain that the server will post the callback on the same channel that the 
			initial request was made. Here is the relevant code of the client channel sink.</p>
		<pre>public IMessage SyncProcessMessage(IMessage msg)
    <b>msg = ModifyChannelData(msg);</b>
    return NextSink.SyncProcessMessage(msg);

IMessage ModifyChannelData(IMessage msg) {

    IMethodCallMessage mcm = msg as IMethodCallMessage;
    if(mcm == null)
        return msg;

    Object[] args = mcm.InArgs;
    for(int i=0; i &lt; args.Length; i++)
        if(args[i] is MarshalByRefObject) {

            // Any method parameter that is a MarshalByRefObject is a callback facility
            // so we want to be sure that the desired channel schema is used when the 
            // callback is made.
            ObjRef objRef = RemotingServices.Marshal((MarshalByRefObject)args[i]);

            Object[] data = objRef.ChannelInfo.ChannelData;

            for(int j=0; j &lt; data.Length; j++) {

                if(data[j] is ChannelDataStore) {
                    <STRONG>data[j] = new ChannelDataStore(_channelURIs);</STRONG>

     String url = msg.Properties["__Uri"] as String;

     int index = url.IndexOf("://");
     if(index != -1) {
         // the client makes a request to the server
         // rewrite the url to remove the formatter spec
         // e.g. remove 'binary' from http-binary://server:port/MyObject'

         String formatter = url.Substring(0, index);
         int n = formatter.IndexOf('-');
         if(n != -1) {
             String newUrl = formatter.Substring(0, n) + url.Substring(index);

             MethodCallMessageWrapper newMsg = new MethodCallMessageWrapper(mcm); 
             newMsg.Properties["__Uri"] = newUrl;
             msg = newMsg;

     return msg;
		<p>The configuration file entries might be as follows.</p>
    &lt;channel id="http" type="Custom.Remoting.Channels.HttpChannel, TwoWayChannel" /&gt;
    &lt;channel id="tcp" type="Custom.Remoting.Channels.TcpChannel, TwoWayChannel" /&gt;
        &lt;channel ref="http" port="8000" channel-schema="http-binary" name="Two way http-binary channel" /&gt;
        &lt;channel ref="http" port="9000" channel-schema="http-soap" name="Two way http-soap channel" /&gt;
        &lt;channel ref="tcp" port="8080" channel-schema="tcp-binary" name="Two way tcp-binary channel" /&gt;
        &lt;channel ref="tcp" port="9090" channel-schema="tcp-soap" name= "Two way tcp-soap channel" /&gt;
        &lt;channel ref="http" port="9876" channel-schema= "http-secure" name="Two way http-secure channel" &gt;
                &lt;formatter ref="binary" /&gt;
                    type= "MsdnMag.Remoting.SecureClientChannelSinkProvider, SecureChannel"
                    type="MsdnMag.Remoting.SecureServerChannelSinkProvider, SecureChannel"
                    algorithm="DES" oaep= "false
                &lt;formatter ref="binary" /&gt;
			The soap formatter outputs much larger data streams than binary formatters do. 
			On the other hand, the http channels are preferred where a connection must pass 
			through a firewall. Assigning a binary formatter to an http channel is 
			therefore one way to improve the performance. But the channel schema concept is 
			not just about performance. There are also other ways to improve the 
			performance of an http channel. One other way is to compress/decompress the 
			soap formatted text stream.
			The channel schema concept is really about clients that want to communicate 
			with many different servers. Be it a tcp channel or an http channel, the 
			extensibility of the .net remoting framework invites many different types of 
			extensions serving many purposes, e.g. encryption, logging, transformation. 
			There is presently no official way to identify the channel that a client should 
			use to connect to a remote object. I do hope that the .net remoting team at 
			Microsoft will do something about it in a future release of the framework.
			This assembly is the core. It implements the channel schema.</P>
			Microsoft developed this assembly. It contains the client and server channel 
			sinks for secure communications. This project is part of an article in the June 
			MSDN magazine.
			This assembly contains an object for testing
			This is a client application for demo purposes.
			This is the server application for demo purposes.
		<p>The object of my work is to identify the limits of what I otherwise believe is a 
			fine framework for distributed computing. You may review the code I have 
			written and most like find it not to be good enough to be deployed in a 
			production environment. But I will always appreciate your comments, 
			suggestions, and tips on how to make things better. Please, be free to provide 
			your feed-back.

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About the Author

Wytek Szymanski
Web Developer
United States United States
I am a consultant, trainer, software archtect/engineer, since the early 1980s, working in the greater area of Boston, MA, USA.

My work comprises the entire spectrum of software, shrink-wrapped applications, IT client-server, systems and protocol related work, compilers and operating systems, and more ....

I am currently focused on platform development for distributed computing in service oriented data centers.

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