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# LINQs and Pancakes

, 14 Jan 2014 CPOL
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This tip is about modifying the ingredient quantities of a recipe using LINQ.

## Introduction

Every chance I get, I try to use the Language INtegrated Query, or LINQ, which provides data querying tools inside the Microsoft .NET Framework. Why? Because that’s the only way I can possibly make it a part of my intuitive thinking in coding. I try to adhere to what Bjarne Stroustrup once said, "Think in terms of algorithms, not loops." LINQ does that.

Anyway, it was time to make pancake with my daughter. We use Aunt Jamima’s buttermilk mix: just add water. Since my daughter is now learning fractions, pancake mix creates useful lessons in fractions. The instructions say mix 2 cups of mix with 1.5 cups of water. Great. But that makes a lot of pancakes. Some get thrown away. Not good. So, my question to her was, "Can you reduce the recipe by ¼?"

Reducing 2 to 1.5 was easy, but not the other one. We had to resort to paper and pencil--in case you're not smarter than a fifth grader, here is the solution:

Got the answer, and we made the pancakes. And my mind began to think about LINQ: pancake mix, water…list…reduce by ¼. How would I code that? Loops?! No. How would I code it in LINQ in C#?

First I put the ingredients in a list:

List<double> numbers = new List<double>() { 2.0, 1.5 };

Done: 2.0 represents the 2 cups of mix, and 1.5 represents the 1.5 cups of water.

And what’s the one-line LINQ statement that would give me what I need? (Drumroll please):

var query = numbers.Select(x => { x = x * 3/4; return x; });

Look what a beautiful expression this is!

No loop! Look at that anonymous function { x = x * 3/4; return x; } applied to each element, x, of the list. "=>" is the operator that applies the function to an element; it’s called the lambda operator.

A reviewer of this tip noted that it can be made even simpler by simply writing:

var query = numbers.Select(x => x * 3/4);

Even more beautiful! (However, in the first one-liner anonymous function is illustrated and I believe it's worthwhile to see that syntax.)

After writing such a query, I had to reward myself with a loop ;) to display the result:

foreach (double x in query)
{
Console.WriteLine(x);
}

When you run the code, you get this:

1.5
1.125

The problem is that "1.125" is not how it’s shown on a measuring cup. I’ll simply modify the display routine (not modify the list!):

foreach (double x in query)
{
Console.WriteLine((int)x + " and 1/" + 1/(x-(int)x) );
}

There:

1 and 1/2
1 and 1/8

Incidentally, that’s how ancient Egyptians expressed mixed fractions. It’s useful when displaying in ASCII, too. If I wrote "1 and 1/2" as "11/2" it would be wrong, wouldn’t it?

If you introduced a new, mutable, variable inside the loop, you’d also be raising the risk of creating a bug; if not now, later. So, please be careful with loops.

Oh, we also ate our delicious pancakes!

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