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RAII, Dynamic Objects, and Factories in C++

By , 3 May 2005
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This article consists of two parts. The first part describes the concept of RAII in general. The second part continues with a special application of RAII for managing dynamic objects.

What is RAII?

  • The worst name invented in the history of C++: RAII means 'resource acquisition is initialization'. Stroustrup: "The basic idea is to represent a resource by a local object, so that the local object's destructor will release the resource. That way, the programmer cannot forget to release the resource". A resource is "any entity that a program acquires and releases. Typical examples are free store, file handles, threads, sockets".
  • A misnomer: The important characteristic of RAII is that resources are released in the destructor. Resources may have been acquired in the constructor or in a member function. Weaker varieties of RAII like std::auto_ptr don't even acquire a resource.
  • Nevertheless RAII is a very important and valuable idiom for managing resources in C++. Moreover, RAII is a genuine C++ technique not found in other programming languages. Binding resources to a scope significantly reduces the complexity of the whole program.

Advantages of RAII

What can you achieve with RAII?[1]

  • Automatic resource handling. Release (cleanup, deallocation, undo, rollback, ...) of various resources without manual interference by the user (user also needs no try, catch, finally, or using blocks).
  • Exception safety. Automatic resource management works for normal and exceptional program flow.
  • Encapsulation and information hiding. Resource acquisition and release are encapsulated in an object.
  • Locality of resources.
  • Deterministic Resource Management. You (can) know in advance when (where) the RAII objects go out of scope and therefore when the resources are released. Resources can be bound to a scope, function scope or block scope (if, do, while, for), in rare cases (Singleton) the global scope.
  • Transactional Programming ("ACID Programming"). Transactional concepts (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) from the database world applied to non-SQL programming.

[1] This list describes prototypical RAII and does not apply to all varieties of RAII.


  • You have to plan the lifetime of resources.

Examples of RAII

  • Acquisition and release of resources, e.g., dynamic objects, database connections, locks, ...


    void myFun()
      XyzLib::Mutex mutex;
      // do things in series ...
    // mutex.unlock() is automatically called in the destructor of mutex
  • Set and reset the state of objects (devices), e.g., SetCurrentDirectory in constructor and reset it in destructor, start and stop a timer, set and reset a cursor (wait - arrow), ...


    void myFun()
      CWaitCursor waitCursor;
      // ...
    // MSDN: "The object's constructor automatically causes the wait cursor to be
    // displayed. When the object goes out of scope (at the end of the block in
    // which the CWaitCursor object is declared), its destructor sets the cursor
    // to the previous cursor. In other words, the object performs the necessary
    // clean-up automatically."
  • Perform undo or rollback.


    void myFun (Database& db)
      Transaction transaction (db);
      if (something.isWrong())
        throw runtime_error ("something wrong in myFun()");
    // transaction.rollbackWork() is called in the destructor of
    // transaction if transaction.commitWork() fails or is not
    // reached, e.g. due to an exception

    Similar tasks can be quite daunting in languages that lack destructors and thus RAII.

Managing Dynamic Objects with RAII

RAII Containers for Dynamic Objects

Stroustrup explains RAII to a former C++ programmer who pretends to never have heard about RAII during 6 years of programming in C++:

"For example, a container is a systematic way of dealing with objects. Some of the things you can have in a container are pointers to other objects, but the container's constructors and destructor can take care of contained objects. The name of the game here is to get allocation out of the way so you don't see it. If you don't directly allocate something, you don't directly deallocate it, because whoever owns it deals with it. The notion of ownership is central. A container may own its objects because they are stored directly. A container of pointers either owns the pointed-to objects or it doesn't. If it contains 1000 pointers, there's only one decision to make. Does it own them, or doesn't it? That's a 1000 to 1 reduction in complexity. As you apply this technique recursively and in as many places as you can, allocation and deallocation disappear from the surface level of your code."

Implementing a RAII Factory for Dynamic Objects

Based on the above quotation from Stroustrup, the following code implements a RAII factory for dynamic objects. I use the term 'factory' here and not 'container' to avoid confusion with traditional containers, e.g., STL containers, and to emphasize the 'creational aspect'. Clarification: Neither the name 'RAII Factory' nor the following code stem from Bjarne Stroustrup.

Example: Consider the following simple class:

class MyClass
  MyClass ()
  MyClass (int i)

  void set (int i);
  int  get ();
// ...

Let's implement a RAII factory that creates objects of type MyClass:

class MyClassFactory
  MyClass* create ()        { return imp.keep (new MyClass; }
  MyClass* create (int arg) { return imp.keep (new MyClass (arg)); }
  RaiiFactoryImp<MyClass> imp;

Nothing fancy. MyClassFactory consists of a few lines of boilerplate code that forwards arguments to the MyClass constructor, calls the imp.keep() function, and returns the created object to the caller.

Common RAII factory code is factored out into an implementation class template called RaiiFactoryImp. Concrete RAII factories like MyClassFactory delegate repetitive functions to it.

RaiiFactoryImp basically has/implements two tasks. It:

  • stores dynamically created objects (keep()) and
  • destroys all stored objects in the destructor (~RaiiFactoryImp())
template <typename T>
class RaiiFactoryImp
    while (!container.empty())
      const T* p = container.back();
      delete p;

  T* keep (T* p)
    container.push_back (p);
    return p;

  std::vector<const T*> container;

  // non-copyable
  RaiiFactoryImp (const RaiiFactoryImp&);
  RaiiFactoryImp& operator= (const RaiiFactoryImp&);

A more polished version of RaiiFactoryImp can be found in the source code download.

Using the code: Place the RAII factory in the right scope and create as much dynamic objects as you need. All created objects are destroyed at the end of the scope, i.e., when the RAII factory goes out of scope.

void myFun (int n)
  MyClassFactory factory;
  for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i)
    MyClass* p = factory.create (i);
    // ...
// all objects created by factory are deleted here!

Features of RAII Factory

  • A RAII factory creates and stores objects. The create() function forwards arguments to the object's constructor.
  • Objects are either fully created and returned to the caller or an exception is thrown. There is no need to check the returned pointer for NULLness.
  • When the factory goes out of scope, it deletes all created objects in the destructor. The factory is non-copyable. The lifetime of objects is bound to a scope ('scope based resource management'). Programming with scope instead of programming with new and delete.
  • new and delete are encapsulated.
  • A factory owns created objects for their entire lifetime. There is no transfer of ownership, no release or detach function. The factory only lends objects to the user. This is also known as 'Producer-Product pattern' or 'Creator as Sole Owner pattern'.
  • Ease of use: The RAII factory implementation above contains no template parameters in the user interface.
  • Non-intrusive: RAII factories for third party classes can be written without changing the third party classes.

What is the Right Scope for a RAII Factory?

The RAII Factory deletes all objects when it goes out of scope. You have to put the factory in the right scope. But what is the right scope?

  • In general, the right scope is the scope in which the created objects are used. The lifetime of created objects cannot exceed the lifetime of the owning RAII factory. Returning a created object from the scope of the factory would crash the program. Of course, created objects and the factory can be passed 'down' to other functions by reference or by address.
  • The "Minimal Scoping Rule": Objects should not loiter around. They should only exist for the time, better, the scope they are needed: the minimal, lowest possible scope.
  • The lifetime of the RAII factory should exceed the lifetime of all pointers to created objects in order to avoid dangling pointers. The RAII factory should not go out of scope when pointers to created objects still exit.

When to use a RAII factory?

If you know in advance that you want to create only one object, you don't need to dynamically allocate anything and you also don't need a RAII factory. Just put the object on the stack. Likewise, for a fixed number of objects, you will probably use a stack-based array.

For an unknown number of objects - unknown at compile time - we have to distinguish between value objects and entity objects. See this article for a brief description of the distinction between value objects (Point, Date, ...) and entity objects (Account, DataBaseConnection, ...).

  • To create an unknown number of value objects, you typically copy each created object by value into a container and work with the container further on (iterate, search, sort, ...). Copying value objects is semantically correct and usually computationally cheap. There is no need for a RAII-Factory in this case, e.g.:
    // create n value objects
    void myFun (int n)
      vector<Point> container;
      for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i)
        Point pt (x, y);
        container.push_back (pt); // copy by value
  • A RAII factory is the right tool to create an unknown number of entity objects. Usually entity objects are non-copyable. In a sense, a RAII factory is a mechanism to 'extend' the stack for an indeterminate number of entity objects.

Extending RAII-Factory

The RAII factory described so far contains the basic implementation that can be extended in various ways. Examples:

An OO Variant

The following example outlines an OO variant of a RAII factory that produces base and derived class objects alike (if the constructor parameters match).

// base.h

class MyBase {
  MyBase (int i);
  virtual ~MyBase(); //<A href="" target=_blank>virtual destructor!</A>
// ...

A class derived from MyBase:

// derived.h

class MyDerived : public MyBase {
  MyDerived (int i);
  virtual ~MyDerived();
// ...

MyPolymorphicFactory produces MyBase objects as well as objects of types derived from MyBase.

class MyPolymorphicFactory
  template <typename T>
  MyBase* create (int arg) { return imp.keep (new T (arg)); }
  RaiiFactoryImp<MyClass> imp;

Using the code:

void myFun (int n)
  MyPolymorphicFactory factory;

  for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i)
    MyBase* m = factory.create<MyBase> (n);
    // ...
    m = factory.create<MyDerived> (n);
    // ...

Note how the create function is defined and invoked as factory.create<MyBase>() or factory.create<MyDerived>(). The type of the object actually created is specified in angle brackets after the function name. This is called 'explicit function template argument specification'. You need a C++ compiler with advanced template support for this to work (not with VC++ 6.0).

A Generic RAII Factory

GFactory<T> is a class template that can be used to create objects of (almost) any type T. One limitation of this approach stems from the fact that many overloaded create() function templates are needed in GFactory because create() should support all combinations of const and non-const template parameters. Currently, GFactory<T>.create() can take up to 8 arguments (up to 16 if all arguments are const). The VC++ 6.0 compiler sometimes reports ambiguous calls (workaround: cast arguments to their type, see source code download for details). Current compilers like the VC++ 7.1 and the GCC 3.4 compiler work as expected.

#include "gfactory.h"

void myFun()
  GFactory<MyClass> myClassFactory;
  for (int i = 0; i < 10; ++i)
    MyClass* m = myClassFactory.create (i);
    // ...

Disposing Objects

Sometimes (rarely) you need to immediately destroy an object instead of waiting until the RAII factory goes out of scope. For this purpose, a dispose() function can be implemented. Be sure though that no dangling pointer is left in your code in this case.

MyClass* p = factory.create (i);
// ...
factory.dispose (p); // will delete p

Factory, Container, or Both?

Questions that may arise now:

  • Is a RAII factory just another container with additional create() functions to accomplish continuous ownership of created objects?
  • Which container functions should be added to a RAII factory then?
  • Should there even be a raii_factory_vector, raii_factory_list, raii_factory_map, etc.?

There are some good reasons to separate creation (factory) from iteration and other container functionality. This way you create objects by using a RAII factory and put them in a different, specialized container - preferably in a container appropriate for pointers like ptr_vector or in a hash table for fast access by key. Separation of concerns provides for flexibility in this case.

On the other hand, an all-in-one solution also has its merits. It's convenient to create and use objects in one place. In an example in the source code download, operator[] is implemented which can be used as iterator through the RAII factory, e.g.:

MyClassFactory factory;
// ...
for (int i = 0; i < factory.size(); ++i)
 cout << *factory[i] << endl;

So, what's the main difference between usual containers and RAII factories? Whereas containers are generic data structures, RAII factories are much more specialized in their objective. Resource management is only their most basic purpose. You easily come up with many useful features that you want to add to a RAII factory.

A powerful application of RAII factories are tree-like structures where each parent element produces n child elements which in turn become parent elements and so on. Many real world domains can naturally and efficiently be modeled as hierarchies of objects that produce and own their descendants.

Alternatives to RAII Factories

Manual Management of Dynamic Objects

Maybe you have seen C++ programs with new and delete statements scattered around the code, sometimes decorated with many try/catch blocks. This is a maintenance nightmare ("Shall I delete this object here or is it used further on?") and a resource management 'anti-pattern'. Most horror stories about 'memory problems' in C++ programs stem from people who have tried this approach. Manual management of dynamic objects, resources in general, is impractical for any but very small applications.

'Smart Pointers'

'Smart pointers' are not pointers but objects that mimic one aspect of pointers, that is, dereferencing. Additionally, they perform some extra, 'smart' task. E.g., std::auto_ptr and reference-counted 'smart pointers' manage the lifetime of objects for which a pointer is passed to them. In many cases, this combination of (partial) pointer functionality and resource management produces more troubles than benefits. Furthermore, resource-managing 'smart pointers' thwart deterministic resource management (you can always return, e.g., an auto_ptr). If you ask me, I would avoid 'smart pointers'. However, 'smart pointer' certainly is the best name invented in the history of C++.

Garbage Collection

Garbage Collection (GC) is a runtime mechanism that recycles unreferenced memory ('garbage') but offers no guarantee for the controlled destruction of objects. GC defeats the purpose of RAII and the unique advantage of C++: deterministic encapsulated resource management. You neither know when the collector kicks in nor when and if a 'finalizer' is called (and are even advised to avoid using a Finalize method). Exception handling gets complicated in GC languages because the responsibility of releasing resources other than pure memory is shifted on to the user. Strangely enough, GC does not necessarily prevent memory leaks [link1, link2, link3]. For C++, there is hardly a good reason to trade RAII for GC.


After a recap of the basic idea of RAII, this article has presented RAII factories, a special variety of RAII to handle dynamic objects. Compared to C++ code that is unaware of it, RAII saves you most new and delete statements. Compared to GC languages, RAII saves you most try, catch, finally, and using blocks. RAII fosters a C++ programming style that greatly simplifies resource handling. In Stroustrup's words again: "As you apply this technique recursively and in as many places as you can, allocation and deallocation disappear from the surface level of your code".

Online Resources

Bartosz Milewski: Resource Management in C++ [link1, link2, link3]


  • April 16, 2005 - Submission to CodeProject.
  • April 27, 2005 - Article update submitted: clarification on the origin of 'RAII Factory'.


This article has no explicit license attached to it but may contain usage terms in the article text or the download files themselves. If in doubt please contact the author via the discussion board below.

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About the Author

Roland Pibinger
Web Developer
Austria Austria
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Comments and Discussions

GeneralMy vote of 5 PinmemberSnacho17-Oct-12 9:56 
NewsYin/Yang - finally a better name for RAII! PinmemberRoland Pibinger10-Jan-07 6:55 
GeneralPattern: Creator as Sole Owner PinmemberRoland Pibinger27-Aug-06 1:31 
News&quot;GC is no silver bullet&quot; PinmemberRoland Pibinger12-Nov-05 9:01 
GeneralStroustrup: Smart pointers should be approached with care PinmemberRoland Pibinger18-Jul-05 9:29 
"The main “Smart pointer” is a reference counted pointer, shared_ptr, intended for code where shared ownership is needed. When the last shared_ptr to an object is destroyed, the object pointed to is deleted. Smart pointers are popular, but should be approached with care. They are not the panacea that they are sometimes presented to be. In particular, they are far more expensive to use than ordinary pointers, destructors for objects “owned” by a set of shared_ptrs will run at unpredictable times, and if a lot of objects are deleted at once because the last shared_ptr to them is deleted you can incur “garbage collection delays” exactly as if you were running a general collector. The costs primarily relate to free store allocation of use count objects and especially to locking during access to the use counts in threaded systems. Do not simply replace all your ordinary pointers with smart_ptrs if you are concerned with performance or predictability. These concerns kept smart_ptrs “ancestor”, counted_ptr, out of the 1998 standard. If it is garbage collection you want, you might be better off simply using one of the available garbage collectors ("

Stroustrup: C++ in 2005[^]
GeneralEnjoyed your article... PinmemberMatt Gullett19-Jun-05 16:13 
GeneralRe: Enjoyed your article... PinmemberRoland Pibinger20-Jun-05 11:43 
NewsMore links to RAII articles PinmemberRoland Pibinger18-Jun-05 23:20 
GeneralRAII factory vs. 'smart pointer' PinmemberRoland Pibinger25-May-05 9:12 
GeneralYou could combine this with memory pools PinmemberDon Clugston8-May-05 14:01 
GeneralRe: You could combine this with memory pools PinmemberRoland Pibinger9-May-05 0:59 
GeneralDid Stroustroup mention RAII factories?... Pinmemberworndown27-Apr-05 3:21 
GeneralRe: Did Stroustroup mention RAII factories?... PinmemberRoland Pibinger27-Apr-05 7:23 
GeneralRe: Did Stroustroup mention RAII factories?... Pinmemberworndown27-Apr-05 10:47 
GeneralRe: Did Stroustroup mention RAII factories?... PinmemberWREY6-May-05 11:31 
GeneralRe: Did Stroustroup mention RAII factories?... Pinmembers_t_r_e_a_m_e_r26-Feb-09 22:46 
GeneralSmart ptr vs RAII Pinmemberrm82224-Apr-05 1:46 
GeneralRe: Smart ptr vs RAII PinmemberRoland Pibinger25-Apr-05 9:58 
GeneralSmart Pointers Pinmemberpeterchen18-Apr-05 12:45 
GeneralRe: Smart Pointers PinmemberRoland Pibinger18-Apr-05 14:20 
GeneralRe: Smart Pointers Pinmemberpeterchen18-Apr-05 20:37 
GeneralRe: Smart Pointers PinmemberRoland Pibinger18-Apr-05 21:30 
GeneralRe: Smart Pointers Pinmemberemilio_grv3-May-05 21:05 
GeneralRe: Smart Pointers PinmemberRoland Pibinger4-May-05 11:03 
GeneralRe: Smart Pointers Pinmemberemilio_grv4-May-05 23:52 
GeneralRe: Smart Pointers PinmemberRoland Pibinger5-May-05 2:00 
GeneralRe: Smart Pointers Pinmemberemilio_grv5-May-05 2:56 
GeneralRe: Smart Pointers PinmemberRoland Pibinger5-May-05 3:44 
GeneralRe: Smart Pointers PinsussMattyT9-May-05 14:12 
GeneralRe: Smart Pointers PinmemberRoland Pibinger10-May-05 9:55 
QuestionIs RAII a cure for all (panacea)? PinmemberMartin Holzherr17-Apr-05 23:05 
AnswerRe: Is RAII a cure for all (panacea)? PinmemberNemanja Trifunovic18-Apr-05 3:06 
GeneralRe: Is RAII a cure for all (panacea)? PinmemberRoland Pibinger18-Apr-05 9:27 
GeneralRe: Is RAII a cure for all (panacea)? PinmemberRompa23-Apr-05 4:01 
GeneralRe: Is RAII a cure for all (panacea)? PinmemberRoland Pibinger24-Apr-05 1:50 
AnswerRe: Is RAII a cure for all (panacea)? PinmemberRoland Pibinger18-Apr-05 9:08 
GeneralRe: Is RAII a cure for all (panacea)? Pinmemberbrajiv21-Apr-05 20:23 

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