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A Journey into Expressions

, 1 Nov 2008
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A journey into Expressions


This article is a short article on the Expressions namespace and how to create Expression Trees manually.

What I'm going to attempt to cover in this article will be:

I think that's quite enough for one article.

A Little History

.NET has evolved over the years, but one of the constants has been the use of delegates. For those that don't know what delegates are, they are simply method pointers. Now although not directly related to this article's content, I think it is a good idea to show you a bit about the evolution of delegates leading to lambdas in order for you to understand the rest of the article.

Now it used to be that you had to manually create delegates such as this:

    // Declare a delegate type for processing a book:
    public delegate void ProcessBookDelegate(Book book);

    // Maintains a book database.
    public class BookDB
        // Call a passed-in delegate on each paperback book to process it: 
        public void ProcessPaperbackBooks(ProcessBookDelegate processBook)
            foreach (Book b in list)
                if (b.Paperback)
                    // Calling the delegate:

    // Class to test the book database:
    class TestBookDB
        // Print the title of the book.
        static void PrintTitle(Book b)
            System.Console.WriteLine("   {0}", b.Title);

        // Execution starts here.
        static void Main()
            // Create a new delegate object associated with the static 
            // method Test.PrintTitle:


Blatantly stolen from MSDN (

Luckily over the years, Microsoft has given us anonymous delegates which allow us to do things like this:

this.Loaded += delegate
	MessageBox.Show("in the delegate");

Where the signature of this delegate would be something like the following if we had to actually declare it in a non anonymous manner:

internal delegate void MessagDelegate();

Which is all well and good, but sometimes you want the ability to create an anonymous delegate that takes a parameter, or maybe even returns a value. Luckily we can still do this using an anonymous delegate, but we must make sure that the delegate type is known at runtime, so we have to provide a non anonymous delegate signature to use within any method that accepts an anonymous delegate. This allows us to get the correct return type/value.

Here is an example:

internal delegate String UpperCaseAStringDelegate(String s);
this.Loaded += delegate
    ShowIt(delegate(string s)
        return s.ToUpper();
private void ShowIt(UpperCaseAStringDelegate del)

Now a little bit of time goes by and Microsoft introduced the lambda syntax. There are many great articles on lambdas. I will just show one small example comparing them to anonymous delegates, but you will find more on the internet, have a look.

Using the last example, we could simply replace the delegate(string s) {...} with a lambda, which would be (s) => {...}. Here is a reworked example using the lambda syntax:

internal delegate String UpperCaseAStringDelegate(String s);
this.Loaded += delegate
    ShowIt((s) =>
        return s.ToUpper();
private void ShowIt(UpperCaseAStringDelegate del)

But we can actually go one step further and remove the reliance on the UpperCaseAStringDelegate altogether. We can simply replace it with one of the generic Func<T,TResult> delegates where we would then end up with the following code:

internal delegate String UpperCaseAStringDelegate(String s);
this.Loaded += delegate
    ShowItLambda((s) =>
        return s.ToUpper();
private void ShowItLambda(Func<String,String> lambda)

Isn't that nicer. That's all I wanted to say in this section, I just wanted you to understand what the Func<T,TResult> delegates and lambdas are actually doing before we move on to some of the more finer details of the Creating Expressions and the Expression namespace.

Creating Expressions

Now that we know about lambdas and some of the Func<T,TResult> delegates, let's proceed to look at Expressions. Expressions came with lambdas. Microsoft has this to say about Expression Trees "Expression trees represent language-level code in the form of data. The data is stored in a tree-shaped structure. Each node in the expression tree represents an expression, for example a method call or a binary operation such as x < y."

So what does that mean to us. Well let's consider the following diagram, where we have one of the generic Func<T,T,TResult> delegates, which means we have a lambda that takes 2 parameters and returns a value. The following illustration shows an example of an expression and its representation in the form of an expression tree.

So you can see from this that we have things like BinaryExpression/ParameterExpression/MemberExpression. Ok, fine. But what would a concrete example look like.

I think the best way to do this is for me to show you some examples. I will show you two examples, all based on the following test data:

String[] bindings = new String[2] {"NetTcpBinding", "HttpBinding"};
List<Order> orders = new List<Order>{
    new Order {OrderId=1},
    new Order {OrderId=2}

Example 1

Let's consider the following:

foreach (String bindingString in
    bindings.Where((x) => x.StartsWith("Net")))
    Console.WriteLine("Yields {0}".F(bindingString));

This simply uses a lambda within a Where extension method. But could we do this differently, well yeah we could also do the following, where we actually have an Expression<Func<String, Boolean>> variable, which we MUST compile when it is used in the where extension method. Do you see where all this is going?

Expression<Func<String, Boolean>> 
    staticDeclaredExpression = (x) => x.StartsWith("Net");

foreach (String bindingString in
    Console.WriteLine("Yields {0}".F(bindingString));

Ok now that you understand the basic idea behind Expressions, maybe it is time to see some harder examples.

Example 2

In this example, we will be manually creating a lambda that will do the following (o) => o.OrderID==2 to use within a where extension method. Here is the code:

ConstantExpression constOrderId = Expression.Constant(2);

ParameterExpression paramOrder = 
    Expression.Parameter(typeof(Order), "o");

MemberExpression mex = 
    LambdaExpression.PropertyOrField(paramOrder, "OrderId");

BinaryExpression filter = Expression.Equal(mex, constOrderId);
Expression<Func<Order, bool>> exprLambda =
    Expression.Lambda<Func<Order, bool>>(filter, 
        new ParameterExpression[] { paramOrder });

foreach (Order o in orders.Where(exprLambda.Compile()))

So a little explanation here, as we are using an object and want to use one of its methods, we need to use a MemberExpression, and as we need to test this against a constant, we need to use a ConstantExpression. We also need to test for equality, so we need to use a BinaryExpression. Finally we need to create an overall Expression Tree, which we can do using the Expression.Lambda<Func<T,TResult>>. If you look at the Expression.Lambda method, it may begin to make a bit more sense:

Example 3

The last example will be trying to do the following (x) => x.Length > 1 where x is a String:

ConstantExpression constLength = Expression.Constant(1);

ParameterExpression stringParameter = 
    Expression.Parameter(typeof(String), "s");

MemberExpression stringMember = 
    LambdaExpression.PropertyOrField(stringParameter, "Length");

Expression<Func<String, Boolean>> bindLambda =
    Expression.Lambda<Func<String, Boolean>>

foreach (String bindingString in 

This is much the same as the last example, with the exception that I am building the entire tree using the following Expression.Lambda() method, where I am effectively building the entire Expression Tree in 1 hit.

public static Expression<TDelegate> Lambda<TDelegate>(
    Expression body,
    IEnumerable<ParameterExpression> parameters

Expression Namespace

If we have a look at some of the classes available within the System.Linq.Expressions namespace, it gives us a good idea of what could be achieved programmatically.

Covering all these classes is outside the scope of what I wanted to cover in this article. If you want to do more, go for it. Have fun.

We're Done

If you liked the article please vote for it. Thanks.


  • 1st November, 2008: Initial post


This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)


About the Author

Sacha Barber
Software Developer (Senior)
United Kingdom United Kingdom
I currently hold the following qualifications (amongst others, I also studied Music Technology and Electronics, for my sins)
- MSc (Passed with distinctions), in Information Technology for E-Commerce
- BSc Hons (1st class) in Computer Science & Artificial Intelligence
Both of these at Sussex University UK.

I am lucky enough to have won a few awards for Zany Crazy code articles over the years

  • Microsoft C# MVP 2014
  • Codeproject MVP 2014
  • Microsoft C# MVP 2013
  • Codeproject MVP 2013
  • Microsoft C# MVP 2012
  • Codeproject MVP 2012
  • Microsoft C# MVP 2011
  • Codeproject MVP 2011
  • Microsoft C# MVP 2010
  • Codeproject MVP 2010
  • Microsoft C# MVP 2009
  • Codeproject MVP 2009
  • Microsoft C# MVP 2008
  • Codeproject MVP 2008
  • And numerous codeproject awards which you can see over at my blog

Comments and Discussions

GeneralVery Nice! PinmemberPhoenix Roberts17-Apr-12 3:14 
GeneralMy vote of 5 PinmemberEric Xue (brokensnow)7-Sep-10 17:46 
GeneralRe: My vote of 5 PinmvpSacha Barber4-Aug-11 0:38 
GeneralCool PinmemberHristo Bojilov29-Jul-09 6:35 
NewsSource code available online PinmemberGilad Khen30-May-09 16:42 
GeneralImplement sql method Like PinmemberMr.Pjotrek18-Mar-09 8:15 
GeneralRe: Implement sql method Like PinmvpSacha Barber18-Mar-09 11:11 
GeneralRe: Implement sql method Like PinmemberMr.Pjotrek18-Mar-09 23:44 
GeneralRe: Implement sql method Like PinmemberDon Kackman11-Jul-09 5:39 
SQL Like is an odd beast compared to most other pattern matching. I have a version of it in my SQL to Linq code that looks like (the regex pieces came from the internet).
public static bool IsSqlLikeMatch(string input, string pattern)
    /* Turn "off" all regular expression related syntax in
    * the pattern string. */
    pattern = Regex.Escape(pattern);
    /* Replace the SQL LIKE wildcard metacharacters with the
    * equivalent regular expression metacharacters. */
    pattern = pattern.Replace("%", ".*?").Replace("_", ".");
    /* The previous call to Regex.Escape actually turned off
    * too many metacharacters, i.e. those which are recognized by
    * both the regular expression engine and the SQL LIKE
    * statement ([...] and [^...]). Those metacharacters have
    * to be manually unescaped here. */
    pattern = pattern.Replace(@"\[", "[").Replace(@"\]", "]").Replace(@"\^", "^");
    return Regex.IsMatch(input, pattern, RegexOptions.IgnoreCase);
To create it as an expression you can do something like (pun intended):
protected override Expression CreateOperatorExpression(ParameterExpression param, Expression left)
    MethodInfo match = typeof(LikeNode).GetMethod("IsSqlLikeMatch");
    Expression pattern = Expression.Constant(GetLikeMatchPattern());
    return Expression.Call(match, left, pattern);

10 PRINT Software is hard. - D Knuth
20 GOTO 10

GeneralRe: Implement sql method Like PinmvpSacha Barber11-Jul-09 6:29 
GeneralGreat introduction of LINQ Expressions Pinmemberhzx12330-Jan-09 6:04 
GeneralRe: Great introduction of LINQ Expressions PinmvpSacha Barber30-Jan-09 21:12 
GeneralRe: Great introduction of LINQ Expressions Pinmemberhzx1234-Feb-09 7:42 
GeneralRe: Great introduction of LINQ Expressions PinmvpSacha Barber4-Feb-09 9:24 
GeneralGlad to see this article Pinmemberarhoads7610-Nov-08 3:39 
GeneralRe: Glad to see this article PinmvpSacha Barber10-Nov-08 9:40 
GeneralOne use of lambda expression generation Pinmemberjpbochi4-Nov-08 5:47 
GeneralRe: One use of lambda expression generation Pinmemberjpbochi4-Nov-08 5:51 
GeneralRe: One use of lambda expression generation PinmvpSacha Barber4-Nov-08 6:18 
GeneralRe: One use of lambda expression generation PinmvpSacha Barber4-Nov-08 6:26 
GeneralCall me stupid.. Pinmemberezazazel3-Nov-08 9:47 
GeneralRe: Call me stupid.. PinmvpSacha Barber3-Nov-08 10:29 
Generallamda =&gt; lambda Pinmembertekener2-Nov-08 22:18 
GeneralRe: lamda =&gt; lambda PinmvpSacha Barber3-Nov-08 0:29 
GeneralRe: lamda =&gt; lambda Pinmemberdinotsocrates5-Nov-08 2:56 
GeneralRe: lamda =&gt; lambda PinmvpSacha Barber5-Nov-08 4:20 
GeneralRe: lamda =&gt; lambda Pinmemberdinotsocrates5-Nov-08 4:25 
GeneralRe: lamda =&gt; lambda PinmvpSacha Barber5-Nov-08 5:27 
GeneralNice one PinmvpJosh Smith2-Nov-08 16:27 
GeneralRe: Nice one PinmvpSacha Barber2-Nov-08 22:00 
Generalvery easy to read, great stuff Pinmembermarlongrech2-Nov-08 9:46 
GeneralRe: very easy to read, great stuff PinmvpSacha Barber2-Nov-08 22:01 
GeneralNice article! PinmemberDmitri Nesteruk1-Nov-08 22:58 
GeneralRe: Nice article! PinmvpSacha Barber2-Nov-08 0:53 
GeneralRe: Nice article! PinmemberDmitri Nesteruk3-Nov-08 1:50 
GeneralRe: Nice article! PinmvpSacha Barber3-Nov-08 2:04 
Questionwhy do I always feel so stupid when I read your articles? PinmemberAbu Mami1-Nov-08 20:12 
AnswerRe: why do I always feel so stupid when I read your articles? PinmvpSacha Barber2-Nov-08 0:53 
GeneralImages.. PinmemberTodd Smith1-Nov-08 17:04 
GeneralRe: Images.. PinmvpSacha Barber2-Nov-08 0:55 
Generalnice dive into this subject Pinmemberchristoph braendle1-Nov-08 4:23 
GeneralRe: nice dive into this subject PinmvpSacha Barber1-Nov-08 5:06 
GeneralRe: nice dive into this subject PinmemberDon Kackman1-Nov-08 11:43 
GeneralRe: nice dive into this subject PinmvpSacha Barber2-Nov-08 0:54 
GeneralRe: nice dive into this subject PinmemberDon Kackman2-Nov-08 5:19 
GeneralRe: nice dive into this subject PinmvpSacha Barber3-Nov-08 1:02 
GeneralRe: nice dive into this subject PinmemberDon Kackman3-Nov-08 4:07 
GeneralRe: nice dive into this subject PinmvpSacha Barber5-Nov-08 10:32 
GeneralRe: nice dive into this subject PinmemberDon Kackman6-Nov-08 5:36 
GeneralRe: nice dive into this subject PinmvpSacha Barber6-Nov-08 6:29 

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