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Sealing Classes in C++

, 2 Sep 2009 MIT
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A method to create sealed classes in C++


Some recent languages like C# and Java allow you to seal your classes easily using a keyword like sealed or final respectively. C++ doesn't have any such keyword for this purpose. However, it's possible to still do it using a trick. When using virtual inheritance, the initialization list of the most-derived-class's constructor directly invokes the virtual base class's constructor. This means that if we can hide access to the virtual base class's constructor, then we can prevent any class from deriving from it. This mimics the effect of being sealed.

Solution Attempt #1

To provide an easy way to seal classes, we can write a header file Sealed.h like this:

class SealedBase

#define Sealed private virtual SealedBase 

Now to seal a class, say Penguin, we just need to derive it from Sealed, like this:

#include "Sealed.h"

class Penguin : Sealed

That's it. Penguin is now a sealed class. Let's try deriving another class, BigZ (Surf's Up (2007), anyone?) from Penguin

class BigZ : Penguin

BigZ bigZ; // error C2248 

Instantiating an object of BigZ should yield a compiler error. The MSVC++ 2005 compiler gives me the following error message:

error C2248: 'SealedBase::SealedBase' : cannot access inaccessible member 
declared in class 'SealedBase'

A Serious Flaw

All seems to be working well. However, one of my fellow programmers, Angelo Rohit, pointed out to me that this method has a serious flaw in it. Angelo says that if BigZ derives from Penguin and Sealed, then it will be possible to create objects of BigZ:

class BigZ : Penguin, Sealed

BigZ bigZ; // OK; no compiler error 

Why does this happen? BigZ derives from Sealed just like Penguin does, which means that it now has access to Sealed's constructor. And since Sealed is inherited virtually by both Penguin and BigZ, there is only one copy of it - which is now also accessible to BigZ. Bummer. We need to have a mechanism by which BigZ is forced to call the constructor of a class which it doesn't have access to.

Solution Attempt #2

After pondering over this for a while, I realized that if we can somehow generate different base classes every time Sealed is derived from, then it would work.

Let's rewrite the Sealed.h header to look like this:

template <int T>
class SealedBase

#define Sealed private virtual SealedBase<__COUNTER__>

What does this do? SealedBase is now a templated class which takes an integer as an argument. __COUNTER__ is a predefined macro which expands to an integer starting with 0 and incrementing by 1 every time it is used in a compiland. So every time Sealed is derived from, it generates a new SealedBase class using the incremental number which __COUNTER__ expands to.

Now let's go back to our BigZ class which derives from both Penguin and Sealed:

class BigZ : Penguin, Sealed

BigZ bigZ; // error C2248

This time around though, BigZ can't escape from the compiler. Penguin derives from SealedBase<number1> and BigZ derives from SealedBase<number2>, where number1 and number2 are two non-identical integers. So now BigZ has to invoke the constructor of SealedBase<number1>, which it doesn't have access to.

The MSVC++ 2005 compiler gives me the following error message:

error C2248: 'SealedBase<T>::SealedBase' : cannot access inaccessible member 
declared in class 'SealedBase<T>'
1> with
1> [
1> T=0
1> ]

Portability Issues

However, you might be thinking that since we're using a special predefined macro __COUNTER__ in our implementation, this code is not portable. Well, it's supported by MSVC++ (which I used to test the above code) and also by GCC (

But what about compilers which don't?

A Portable Solution 

After a little thought, I came up with the following way:

In Sealed.h:

template <class T>
class SealedBase

#define Sealed(_CLASS_NAME_) private virtual SealedBase<_CLASS_NAME_>

And to seal a class:

#include "Sealed.h"

class Penguin : Sealed(Penguin)

When sealing a class, we need to mention that class's name to the Sealed macro. This enables the Sealed macro to generate a new version of SealedBase. This is less elegant than simply having to derive from Sealed, but is more portable, making it a good alternative for compilers which don't support the __COUNTER__ predefined macro.

Final Words

People who use MSVC++ or GCC can simply use Solution Attempt #2, as it is cleaner. People on other compilers, can use the Portable Solution. If you have any questions, suggestions, improvements, or simply want to say hi, please email me.

Thanks for reading!
Francis Xavier


  1. C++ Q&A: List View Mode, SetForegroundWindow, and Class Protection
  2. Vladislav Lazarenko: "[boost] Sealed C++ class"


  • 2nd September, 2009: Initial post


This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The MIT License


About the Author

Francis Xavier Pulikotil
Software Developer
United States United States
Besides loving spending time with family, Francis Xavier likes to watch sci-fi/fantasy/action/drama movies, listen to music, and play video-games. After being exposed to a few video-games, he developed an interest in computer programming. He currently holds a Bachelor's degree in Computer Applications.

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Comments and Discussions

QuestionThanks Francis Pin
consthab210-Apr-13 3:44
memberconsthab210-Apr-13 3:44 
BugPortable solution flaw Pin
Yaroslav Lobachevski6-Dec-12 12:52
memberYaroslav Lobachevski6-Dec-12 12:52 
GeneralThe soluion does not seem simple Pin
Mukit, Ataul20-Feb-11 7:02
memberMukit, Ataul20-Feb-11 7:02 
GeneralSealed class need does exist Pin
Bhushan198023-Feb-10 19:27
memberBhushan198023-Feb-10 19:27 
To all those who are constantly negating the necessity of a sealed class, I would say that perhaps you were not into that kind of situation. And, I can also understand that it is not very good idea to make a class a sealed class. atleast in C++, in general or common place scenarios. But, there are situations as explained by the EventClass Example somewhere along this thread. The class could have been kept unsealed, but as said, making it sealed helps compiler make optimizations, which is a prime necessity of a C++ compiler. C++ compilers make numerous optimizations for template classes as well. Secondly, developers experienced in designing frameworks do consider numerous situations, where in they can estimate the misuse of the class and think about the ways to avoid them. They also consider the impact of the extensibility and do a break even of the benefits achieved by the extend versus the optimized code that is being developed. If the memory leaks, buffer over runs, v table allocations are not optimizable and the derived or inherited class benefits are not substantial, then it is always better to keep a class sealed and let compiler not bother about optimizing further classes in its hierarchy. I am sure there would be others who would defy my arguments...and I would like someone to come up with a better solution for the case where a class is inherited from multiple base classes with protected constructors. The creator of the thread mentioned the flaw that he can still inherit from 2 base classes, if one was a parent class with protected constructor...
BTW, I really do appreciate this approach
Thanks for reading
GeneralSimplier way to make a class sealed Pin
sergey nazarov8-Sep-09 1:37
membersergey nazarov8-Sep-09 1:37 
GeneralRe: Simplier way to make a class sealed Pin
emilio_grv9-Sep-09 22:26
memberemilio_grv9-Sep-09 22:26 
GeneralRe: Simplier way to make a class sealed Pin
Bhushan198023-Feb-10 19:05
memberBhushan198023-Feb-10 19:05 
QuestionWhat is the purpose of a Sealed Class? PinPopular
hector santos2-Sep-09 18:03
memberhector santos2-Sep-09 18:03 
AnswerRe: What is the purpose of a Sealed Class? Pin
Tim Craig2-Sep-09 18:25
memberTim Craig2-Sep-09 18:25 
GeneralRe: What is the purpose of a Sealed Class? Pin
emilio_grv4-Sep-09 2:42
memberemilio_grv4-Sep-09 2:42 

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