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Cisco configuration download and upload - Part II

, 30 Dec 2002
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The second section of cisco configuration download and upload. In this section, the win SNMP api is explained a litle bit.
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Introduction

One day i wanted to know what kind of configuration routers in my company have. Because i am working in a bank, there are many branches, many routers and , of course, many configurations. So i wanted to access to the routers and made a request to one of my friends in Ankara to send me a configuration file installed on the routers. At last ( many days later ) he sent me one. I had a look at the file and saw that he had deleted all enable password sections, virtual terminal access sections, auxiluary port access sections and console access section. But there was an open door, snmp read/write community name. Yes, i had an open door but i had no any snmp utility to get routers's configuration file. I found one that is great named "Solar Winds Engineers Edition". 30 days later, the trial period ended. and then i made a serach on net, again, again again. At last, i was bored and decided to write my own program doing what i want. This time i searched the net for snmp protocol, after finding some documentations i wrote this program. In this section i will give you litle information about SNMP protocol ( if you want to know more about it, you can go the cisco web site for it - www.cisco.com ), wsnmp32 api functions declerations and the usage of them. The last section will include the source code of the program. I hope these all things will be useful for one person on net at least.

What Is SNMP ?

SNMP ( Simple Network Managment Protocol ) is a protocol that enables to exchange of management information between network devices. It also enables to manage network performance, find and solve network problems and plan for network growth. There are three versions of SNMP which are SNMP V.1, SNMP V.2 and SNMP V.3. Each version of SNMP introduces new functionalities over the old one. SNMP has three basic components which are a managed device, an agent and a network managment system ( NMS ). A managed device is a network node that contains the agents and is resided on a managed network. They can be routers, access servers, switchs, bridges, hubs, computer hosts or printers. An agent is a network-management software module resides in a managed device. An NMS contains application programs that monitor and control the managed device.

What Is Win SNMP

Win SNMP is an API that enables SNMP-based network management applications running under the Microsoft Windows operating systems to use the functionality of SNMP.It contains many functions to get information about SNMP agents and to set them with new values. Here, you will find all the structures and constant definitions, function declerations and their usages defined in SNMP V.1 and SNMP V.2.

SNMP Data Types And Structures

The SNMP data types and structures are as fallows

Data Types
Type NameC# Type
smiINTint
smiINT32int
smiUINT32uint
smiOCTETSStructure of smiOCTET
smiBITSStructure of smiOCTET
smiOIDStructure of smiOCTET
smiIPADDRStructure of smiOCTET
smiCNTR32uint
smiGAUGE32uint
smiTIMETICKSuint
smiOPAQUEStructure of smiOCTET
smiNSAPADDRStructure of smiOCTET
smiCNTR64SStructure of smiCNTR64

Structures

smiOCTET
Type NameC# Type
smiUINT32 lenuint len
smiUINT32 ptruint ptr
C# structure definition
struct smiOCTET
{
   uint len;
   uint ptr;
}
smiCNTR64
Type NameC# Type
smiUINT32 hipartuint hipart
smiUINT32 lopartuint lopart
C# structure definition
struct smiCNTR64
{
   uint hipart;
   uint lopart;
}

Local Database Functions

Local database functions are as fallows

SnmpSetTranslateMode

Definitions
Win SNMPC#
SnmpSetTranslateMode( IN smiUINT32 nTranslateMode);[DllImport("wsnmp32")] extern int SnmpSetTranslateMode( int nTransMode);
Description
The SnmpSetTranslateMode function enables the calling application to inform the implementation as the desired entity/context translation mode to use for subsequent SnmpStrToEntity and SnmpStrToContext function calls. nTranslateMode is the desired mode to set and must be one of the fallowing values:

SNMPAPI_TRANSLATED
SNMPAPI_UNTRANSLATED_V1
SNMPAPI_UNTRANSLATED_V2

SnmpSetRetransmitMode

Definitions
Win SNMPC#
SnmpSetRetransmitMode( IN smiUINT32 nRetransmitMode);[DllImport("wsnmp32")] extern int SnmpSetRetransmitMode(int nRetransmitMode);
Description
The SnmpSetRetransmitMode function enables the calling application to inform the implementation as to the desired retransmission mode (i.e., timeout/retry) for subsequent SnmpSendMsg operations. nRetransmitMode is the desired mode to set and must be one of the fallowing values

SNMPAPI_ON -> The implementation is doing retransmission
SNMPAPI_OFF -> The implementation is not doing retransmission

Communication Functions

Communication functions are as fallows

SnmpStartup

Definitions
Win SNMPC#
SnmpStartup(OUT smiUINT32 nVerMaj, OUT smiUINT32 nVerMin, OUT smiUINT32 nLevel, OUT smiUINT32 nTMode, OUT smiUINT32 nRMode);[DllImport("wsnmp32")] extern int SnmpStartup(ref int nVerMaj, ref int nVerMin, ref int nLevel, ref int nTMode, ref int nRMode);
Description
The SnmpStartup function notifies the implementation that the calling application is going to use its services, enabling the implementation to perform any required start-up procedures and allocations and to return some useful housekeeping information to the application.

nMajorVersion -> is the variable to receive the major version number
nMinorVersion -> is the variable to receive the minor version number
nLevel -> is the variable to receive the highest level supported
nTranslateMode -> is the variable to receive the default entity/context translation mode in effect
nRetransmitMode -> is the variable to receive the default retransmission mode in effect

Note : Every Win SNMP application must call this function preceeding any other Win SNMP functions.

SnmpCleanup();

Definitions
Win SNMPC#
SnmpCleanup();[DllImport("wsnmp32")] extern int SnmpCleanup();
Description
The SnmpCleanup function informs the implementation that the calling application is disconnecting and no longer requires any open resources which might be allocated to it by the implementation. The implementation will deallocate all resources allocated to the application, unless they have also been allocated to other active applications. Important Note : Every application must call SnmpFreeXXX functions and SnmpClose function after every SnmpOpen function call before exiting the application. In an emergency exit, implementation only releases the resources that are being responsible by itself, if this function calls./font>

SnmpClose

Definitions
Win SNMPC#
SnmpClose(IN smiUINT32 hSession);[DllImport("wsnmp32")] extern int SnmpClose(int hSession);
Description
The SnmpClose function causes the implementation to deallocate and/or close memory, resources, communications mechanisms and data structures associated with the specified session, on behalf of the calling application. A well-behaved application will call SnmpClose after each opened session when a session is no longer needed. In an emergency exit, at least SnmpCleanup must be called.

SnmpSendMsg

Definitions
Win SNMPC#
SnmpSendMsg(IN smiUINT32 hSession, IN smiUINT32 sEntity, IN smiUINT32 dEntity, IN smiUINT32 hContext, IN smiUINT32 hPDU);[DllImport("wsnmp32")] extern int SnmpSendMsg(int hSession, int sEntity, int dEntity, int hContext, int hPDU);
Description
The SnmpSendMsg function requests the specified PDU be transmitted to the destination entity, using the specified context and--for SNMPv2 communications--the designated source entity
When a transmission request is received by the implementation via the SnmpSendMsg function, the WinSNMP implementation determines which version of SNMP and which transport to use based on its own capabilities and the corresponding properties associated with the requesting session and with the remote entity which holds the context to be accessed, based on values in the Local Database.

session -> Identifies the session that will perform the operation.
srcEntity -> Identifies the subject management entity.
dstEntity -> Identifies the target management entity.
context -> Identifies the target context of interest.
pdu -> Identifies the SNMP protocol data unit containing the operation.

Note: It is the responsibility of the WinSNMP implementation to verify the correctness of the PDU structure (and other arguments)

SnmpRecvMsg

Definitions
Win SNMPC#
SnmpRecvMsg(IN smiUINT32 hSession, OUT smiUINT32 sEntity, OUT smiUINT32 dEntity, OUT smiUINT32 hContext, OUT smiUINT32 hPDU);[DllImport("wsnmp32")] extern int SnmpRecvMsg(int hSession, ref int sEntity, ref int dEntity, ref int hContext, ref int hPDU);
Description
The SnmpRecvMsg function retrieves the results from a completed asynchronous request made on a given HSNMP_SESSION. It also receives traps registered for that session.

session -> Specifies the session that will receive the SNMP message.
sEntity -> Identifies the entity (agent role) which sent the message.
dEntity -> Identifies the entity (manager role) which is to receive the message.
hcontext -> Identifies the context from which the srcEntity issued the message.
hpdu -> Identifies the PDU component of the received message.

Note: Because there may be multiple messages sent to an agent, receiving order may not be in the same order for the messages that are sent. so, it is the responsibility of the Win SNMP application to check the request id by the request id of the message that is sent to make sure that the received message is the reply of the message that is sent.

SnmpOpen

Definitions
Win SNMPC#
SnmpOpen(IN smiUINT32 hWnd, IN smiUINT32 wMsg);[DllImport("wsnmp32")] extern int SnmpOpen(IntPtr hWnd, int wMsg);
Description
The SnmpOpen function enables the implementation to allocate and initialize memory, resources, and/or communications mechanisms and data structures for the application. The application will continue to use the "session identifier" returned by the implementation in subsequent WinSNMP function calls to facilitate resource accounting on a per session basis. This mechanism will enable the implementation to perform an orderly release of resources in response to a subsequent SnmpClose function call for a given session.

hWnd -> Identifies the application's notification window.
wMsg -> Identifies the application's notification message.

Entity / Context Functions

Entity / Context functions are as fallows

SnmpStrToEntity

Definitions
Win SNMPC#
SnmpStrToEntity(IN smiUINT32 hSession, IN LPCSTR Entity);[DllImport("wsnmp32")] extern int SnmpStrToEntity(int hSession, string Entity);
Description
The SnmpStrToEntity function accepts a pointer to a null-terminated text string identifying an entity of interest and, if successful, returns a handle to an implementation-specific representation of entity information. Note that the resulting entity handle may be used as either a srcEntity value or as a dstEntity value.

hsession -> Handle of the allocating session.
Entity -> Pointer to a NULL-terminated text string identifying the management entity of interest.

SnmpFreeEntity

Definitions
Win SNMPC#
SnmpFreeEntity(IN smiUINT32 hEntity);[DllImport("wsnmp32")] extern int SnmpFreeEntity(int hEntity);
Description
The SnmpFreeEntity function releases resources associated with a entity returned by the SnmpStrToEntity function.

hEntity -> An entity handle to be released.

SnmpStrToContext

Definitions
Win SNMPC#
SnmpStrToContext(IN smiUINT32 hSession, OUT smiOCTET smiOctets);[DllImport("wsnmp32")] extern int SnmpStrToContext(int hSession, ref smiOCTETSTRING smiOctets);
Description
The SnmpStrToContext function accepts an OCTET STRING naming the collection of managed objects (or "profile") of interest (for SNMPAPI_TRANSLATED mode), a community string (for SNMPAPI_UNTRANSLATED_V1 mode), or a contextID (for SNMPAPI_UNTRANSLATED_V2 mode) and returns a handle to an implementation-specific representation of context information for use with the SnmpSendMsg and SnmpRegister functions.

session -> Handle of the allocating session.
smiOctets -> Pointer to an smiOCTETS descriptor identifying a collection of managed objects, community string, or contextID.

SnmpFreeContext

Definitions
Win SNMPC#
SnmpFreeContext(IN smiUINT32 hContext);[DllImport("wsnmp32")] extern int SnmpFreeContext(int hContext);
Description
The SnmpFreeContext function releases resources associated with a context returned by the SnmpStrToContext function.

hContext -> A context handle to be released.

PDU Functions

PDU functions are as fallows

SnmpCreatePdu

Definitions
Win SNMPC#
SnmpCreatePdu(IN smiUINT32 hSession, IN smiINT32 typePDU, IN smiINT32 ReqID, IN smiINT32 errorStat, IN smiINT32 errorIdx, IN smiUINT32 hVBL);[DllImport("wsnmp32")] extern int SnmpCreatePdu(int hSession, int typePDU, int ReqID, int errorStat, int errorIdx, int hVBL);
Description
The SnmpCreatePdu function allocates and initializes an SNMP protocol data unit for subsequent use in SnmpSendMsg, SnmpEncodeMsg, and other functions.

hSession -> Handle of the allocating session.
typePDU -> NULL or one of the values shown in the PDU_types table shown in the introduction to the PDU Functions section. If NULL, the WinSNMP implementation will supply SNMP_PDU_GETNEXT.
ReqID -> An application-supplied value used to identify the PDU or NULL, in which case the WinSNMP implementation will supply a value.
errorStat -> Ignored (and may be NULL) on input for all PDU types except SNMP_PDU_GETBULK, in which case it represents the value for non_repeaters. For all other PDU types, the WinSNMP implementation will supply SNMP_ERROR_NOERROR.
errorIdx -> Ignored (and may be NULL) on input for all PDU types except SNMP_PDU_GETBULK, in which case it represents the value for max_repetitions. The WinSNMP implementation returns 0 (zero) for all other PDU types.
hVBL -> A handle to a varbindlist data structure (or NULL).

SnmpGetPduData

Definitions
Win SNMPC#
SnmpGetPduData(IN smiUINT32 hPDU, OUT smiUINT32 typePDU, OUT smiUINT32 ReqID, OUT smiUINT32 errorStat, OUT smiUINT32 errorIdx, OUT smiUINT32 hVBL);[DllImport("wsnmp32")] extern int SnmpGetPduData(int hPDU, ref int typePDU, ref int ReqID, ref int errorStat, ref int errorIdx, ref int hVBL);
Description
The SnmpGetPduData function extracts selected data elements from the specified PDU and copies them to the respective locations given as corresponding output parameters.

hPDU -> Identifies the SNMP protocol data unit.
typePDU -> If not NULL, points to an smiINT variable that will receive the PDU_type of the PDU.
ReqID -> If not NULL, points to an smiINT32 variable that will receive the request_id of the PDU.
errorStat -> If not NULL, points to an smiINT variable that will receive the error_status (or non_repeaters) of the PDU.
errorIdx -> If not NULL, points to an smiINT variable that will receive the error_index (or max_repetitions) of the PDU.
hVBL -> If not NULL, points to an HSNMP_VBL variable that will receive the handle to the varbindlist of the PDU.

SnmpFreePdu

Definitions
Win SNMPC#
SnmpFreePdu(IN smiUINT32 hPDU);[DllImport("wsnmp32")] extern int SnmpFreePdu(int hPDU);
Description
The SnmpFreePdu function releases resources associated with a protocol data unit previously created by the SnmpCreatePdu or SnmpDuplicatePdu function.

hPDU -> Identifies the SNMP protocol data unit to be freed.

Variable Binding Functions

Variable Binding functions are as fallows

SnmpCreateVbl

Definitions
Win SNMPC#
SnmpCreateVbl(IN smiUINT32 hSession, IN smiOID VarOID, IN smiVALUE VarVal);[DllImport("wsnmp32")] extern int SnmpCreateVbl(int hSession, ref smiOID VarOID, ref smiVALUEINT VarVal);
Description
The SnmpCreateVbl function creates a new varbindlist structure for the calling application. If the "name" and "value" parameters are not NULL, SnmpCreateVbl uses them to construct the initial varbind member of the varbindlist.

hSession -> Handle of the allocating session.
VarOID -> If not NULL, points to an OID for initialization of the varbindlist.
VarVal -> If not NULL, points to a value for initialization of the varbidlist.

SnmpFreeVbl

Definitions
Win SNMPC#
SnmpFreeVbl(IN smiUINT32 hVBL);[DllImport("wsnmp32")] extern int SnmpFreeVbl(int hVBL);
Description
The SnmpFreeVbl function releases resources associated with a varbindlist structure previously allocated by SnmpCreateVbl or SnmpDuplicateVbl. It is the responsibility of WinSNMP applications to free varbindlist resources allocated through calls to SnmpCreateVbl and SnmpDuplicateVbl.

hVBL -> Identifies the varbindlist to be released.

SnmpGetVb

Definitions
Win SNMPC#
SnmpGetVb(IN smiUINT32 hVBL, IN smiUINT32 Index, OUT smiOID VarOID, OUT smiVALUE VarVal);[DllImport("wsnmp32")] extern int SnmpGetVb(int hVBL, int Index, ref smiOID VarOID, ref smiVALUEOCTET VarVal);
Description
The SnmpGetVb function retrieves the object instance name and its associated value from the varbind identified by the index parameter. The SnmpGetVb function returns the object instance name in the descriptor pointed to by the name parameter and its associated value in the descriptor pointed to by the value parameter.

hVBL -> Identifies the subject varbindlist.
Index -> Identifies the position of the subject varbind within the varbindlist.
VarOID -> Points to a variable to receive the OID portion of the varbind.
VarVal -> Points to a variable to receive the value portion of the varbind.

Utility Binding Functions

Utility Binding functions are as fallows

SnmpGetLastError

Definitions
Win SNMPC#
SnmpGetLastError(IN smiUINT32 hSession);[DllImport("wsnmp32")] extern int SnmpGetLastError(int hSession);
Description
The SnmpGetLastError function returns an indication of why the last WinSNMP operation executed by the application failed.

hSession -> Indicates the session for which error information is requested. If NULL, the application-wide error information is returned.

SnmpStrToOid

Definitions
Win SNMPC#
SnmpStrToOid(IN LPCSTR strOID, OUT smiOID dstOID);[DllImport("wsnmp32")] extern int SnmpStrToOid(string strOID, ref smiOID dstOID);
Description
The SnmpStrToOid function converts a textual representation of the dotted numeric form of an OBJECT IDENTIFIER into an internal OBJECT IDENTIFIER representation.

strOID -> Points to a NULL terminated string to be converted.
dstOID -> Points to an smiOID variable to receive the converted value.

SnmpFreeDescOid

Definitions
Win SNMPC#
SnmpFreeDescOid(IN smiUINT32 syntax,OUT smiOID Descriptor);[DllImport("wsnmp32", EntryPoint="SnmpFreeDescriptor")] extern int SnmpFreeDescOid(int syntax,ref smiOID Descriptor);
Description
The SnmpFreeDescriptor function is used by the application to inform the implementation that it no longer requires access to a WinSNMP "descriptor object" that had been "populated" earlier on its behalf by the implementation.

syntax -> Identifies the "syntax" (data type) of the target descriptor.
Descriptor -> Identifies the target descriptor object..

Kernel Functions

Kernel functions used in the code are as fallows


[DllImport("kernel32")] public static extern void
   Sleep(int dwMilliseconds);


[DllImport("kernel32")] public static extern int
   GetTickCount();


[DllImport("Kernel32", EntryPoint="RtlMoveMemory")] unsafe public static extern int
   CopyMemoryInt(int dest, int src, int length);

About Next Section

Next section of this artical will be about the source code of the program. Because there ara many lines of code, not all of the codes will be shown in the artical. But the basic procedure of SnmpSend and SnmpReceive functions, SnmpGet, SnmpGetNext function will be shown. See you in the next section.

License

This article has no explicit license attached to it but may contain usage terms in the article text or the download files themselves. If in doubt please contact the author via the discussion board below.

A list of licenses authors might use can be found here

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About the Author

firat kocak
Web Developer
Turkey Turkey
Hi to all...
I am an alone programmer. i am not a specialist on programming but i love it. anyone who supports source code sharing is definetely my friend.
Because i am so poor on writing about myself, anyone who wants to learn more about me can feel free to contact me...

Comments and Discussions

 
Questioncode Pinmemberfilzarehman25-Oct-11 8:31 
GeneralGood job! Pinmemberzg123685319620-Mar-11 16:53 
Questionopen library Pinmemberhussien ali11-Mar-11 4:10 
GeneralCisco configuration download and upload PinmemberMember 48767227-Jan-11 5:14 
Questionwhat a good program it is! Pinmembertangwenhao1-Apr-10 17:56 
GeneralHello! PinmemberMiguel96324-May-09 21:22 
GeneralExcelent Article! PinmemberMember 163836716-Jan-09 6:44 
GeneralGood JOB Pinmemberdana tamer18-Sep-08 2:28 
GeneralGreat Work dude!!!!.. Source Code Pls Pinmemberravinaik24-Aug-08 20:40 
Generalhi Pinmemberbaha198319-May-08 5:25 
GeneralGreat article, please send me the source PinmemberKickinA5-May-08 13:08 
GeneralRe: Great article, please send me the source PinmemberKickinA5-May-08 15:06 
GeneralRe: Great article, please send me the source PinmemberGrubler16-May-08 4:19 
GeneralSource Code (again) Pinmemberjesus97230-Apr-08 4:06 
GeneralWhere is the code PinmemberHasson8111-Dec-07 0:46 
QuestionSource Code PinmemberLaxDad19-Jul-07 8:03 
GeneralRe: Source Code PinmemberShankarandy10-Mar-08 1:03 
GeneralArticle Pinmemberocsrdo17-Jul-07 7:56 
Generalthanks PinmemberAmerican_Eagle5-Jun-07 11:53 
GeneralContact PinmemberBarath_madab16-Aug-06 20:15 
QuestionCan I get your WinSnmp codes??? Pinmemberheruizg1-Aug-06 12:44 
Generalshare code Pinmemberblueroute6-Mar-06 21:44 
GeneralLink to Code PinsussAnonymous27-Oct-05 1:35 
GeneralI'd like to receive the code PinmemberRicardo Mendes19-Sep-05 8:26 
Generalhi Pinmemberrealite4-Jul-05 23:56 

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