You need to install a PDF printer driver to use as your destination device. Alternatively you can write the code yourself using a third-party library, or code it from scratch by studying the Adobe PDF specification.
I am building my first class to output graphic to LCD connected to a micro.
Making small progress, however, since there is no proccess feedback form the LCD itself I have to "wait" until something, anything , shows on the LCD.
To test my code I opted to let the constructor paint the whole screen red.
Now for silly question.
I understand constructor function is to instantiate the class so the class methods can be used.
In general most constructors in micro world just take care of very basic - I/O pins assignments, serial baud rate etc.
Would it make more sense if I do all the painting OUTSIDE of constructor?
Or is is just one of those "personal preferences" ?
Eventually I will have more than one instance of this class running.
When using the class multiple times it will make of course sense to perform the output in it's own function. Otherwise each usage will initially draw the same. Even for testing you can call that function (it is just one function call after creating the class).
While you can do anything you want in a constructor, it is often not utile. Because constructors did not return a value, you will often find an additional setup function that returns success/failure while the constructor only initialises members variables.
To test my code I opted to let the constructor paint the whole screen red.
Painting sounds like a behavior rather than a setup. Thus the constructor isn't where it goes.
in micro world
Far as I know micro coding tends to strongly favor execution efficiency. So that decides it. After that then for object oriented programming it follows the idiom that
1. The constructor does what must be done for the object to exist. If it fails then the object cannot exist.
2. Other than 1 everything else is behavior so a method not in the constructor.
So if you can't paint the screen red is that a error or does it mean that caller is done and cannot and must not proceed?
It definitely makes sense to utilize methods return values, something I do most of the time anyway, and let the constructor just do very basic.
As I mentioned, in the real case of LCD class, I do not have feedback from most of methods,so I need to change my debugging.
Instead of blindly painting the whole screen I'll just paint one pixel ( which I probably won't be able to see) and than read it back.
I guess I should walk before running, or better yet after falling down while running it is time to go back to walking.
If you ever write some C++ code using MFC (Microsoft's Foundation Class, essentially an OO wrapper around the WinAPI), you'll notice that there are always initialization routines aside from constructors (they're called OnInit...blah ).
If you happen to use a dialog object, and attempt to draw from the constructor instead of the initialization routine, you'll notice that the objects exist but are not windows yet so you'll get an assertion (if running in debug mode). This means that the constructors have been called but nothing has been drawn yet. The drawing only occurs after all the constructors have been called, the initialization routines are systematically called after that and you can load all the widgets with whatever the default values to be displayed are.
Moral of the story, drawing typically doesn't take place during construction of objects.
Thanks for your reply
In "lstItems" all the items of menu is coming,
But the Main Problem is
when I run this on debug mode,it is not executing the code after "pRibbon->GetItemIDsList(lstItems);" line of code.
I would think that in general, mutexes are purely kernel controlled objects whereas critical sections are mostly "user mode primitives", meaning it's application level logic most of the time (which runs a lot faster without requiring the kernel to be involved). Of course, this also implies a critical section is bound within a process and cannot be shared across processes. The exception is when there actually is a conflict, then a critical section makes a kernel call for synchronization.
If you write some test code, you should be able to notice the speed advantage of a critical section (and all the kernel system calls of a mutex).
Been working on Matt Pietrek's code from an old Microsoft Systems Journal article he wrote about eliminating the C Runtime (LIBC or LIBCMT) from my C++ executables, i.e., using the linker /NODEFAULTLIB switch. Your own Mike_V
wrote a tutorial on that here too...
Everything's working GREAT for me with it except for one point which really has me scratching my head. I can't figure out how to convert a floating point number to its string representation without using one of the printf family functions in the C Runtime. Of course, Win32 'covers' or has its own versions of some of these functions, e.g., wvsprintf in user32.lib has a format specifier parameter, but its not complete; it has everything but %f, which we need to convert a floating point number to a string buffer (try it and you'll see - it doesn't work). And I obviously can't use the C Runtime functions if I'm trying to eliminate them! Does anyone know of a Win32 function which can be used to convert a floating point number into a provided character string buffer??? On MSDN I found a whole bunch of odd named functions I'm totally unfamiliar with...
Shoot! I think I got it! Tried the 1st on my list above, i.e., StringCchPrintf() and it did it. Its in StrSafe.lib. I hope to God that doesn't use the C Runtime or I'm back to square one! I'll let you all know!
Nope. Doesn't work. Unless someone can tell me different, here's the way I see it.
Even if I find a Windows specific function that will take as an input parameter a floating point number and output into a character buffer an asci or wide character rendering, I won't be able to use it against the /NODEFAULTLIB linker switch, because it'll just be a wrapper that calls one of the functions in the C Runtime. And it'll give me linker errors. That's what happened with StringCchPrintf().
So at this point, unless someone can tell me different, I see my only choices as these two...
1) Give up on any window/console/file output using floating point numbers without the C Runtime;
2) Write my own floating point package involving the fpu.
I guess I'll try option #2 above. I see at the masm32 site there is an fpu package with assembler source available. However, I hadn't mentioned, I'm really doing 64 bit and need that. So I've got my work cut out for me.
The reason I'm doing this is because I hate the bloat of modern software. Can't take it anymore. I like C++ OK but I won't use any C++ Std. Lib. code. I write all my own library code, string class, dynamic multidimensional arrays, whatever I need, etc. So now I guess I need to come up with my own floating point code. Please save me somebody! Tell me I'm wrong!
So you don't want to use the standard C library with your program.
Than you have to implement all necessary functionality provided by that library and required by your application yourself. The common method to do such things is to place such functions in a library to be re-used by other projects. As a result, you will have your own standard C library (or a sub set) when using the same function declarations (which makes sense). The LIBCTINY mentioned in your article link is such an implementation.
The StringCch... functions mentioned above are just MS specific extensions to the standard library providing safe and ANSI/Unicode operations. If you have a look at StrSafe.h where they are defined, you will notice that they use the standard C library functions. So you have to implement the used functions when not using the default library.
You may search further for some Windows API function that can perform a required operation. The FormatMessage function (Windows)[^] is a candidate but did not support floating point values. However, it allows passing a pre-formatted floating point argument as string. So it may be sufficient to have a function that converts a floating point number to a string.
As far as I know the Windows API did not provide such a function. I guess there is an internal / undocumented one. But that might not be available.
Thanks for the thoughtful responses Jochen and Richard. Much appreciated.
Here's where I'm at. Just got Raymond Filiatreault's fpulib working for me from www.masm32.com. Its part of the masm32 install. Really nice. So next my intent is to write a C prototype for the function I need and either link against the *.obj or even the lib.
However, I'm some disappointed at this point. I was really hoping to solve my 64 bit bloat issues with all this, but Raymond Filiatreault's fpu lib is 32 bit.
By the way, it was easy to get Matt Pietrek's LibCTiny.lib working in x64; just a tweak here and there.
But while it would be satisfying to get all my stuff working in 32 bit, I really want 64 bit. Would either of you guys know of a 64 bit fpu lib available anywhere? As you mentioned Jochen, maybe I ought to check out the GCC sources.
As an aside, looking at Microsoft's printf.c and _output.c code gets into some pretty ugly stuff. There's an array of function pointers like so...
...and some other undocumented functions involved in the floating point conversions.
But I'm tickled at the size reductions I've achieved. A simple "Hello, World!" with my string class is around 70 k with VC 9 from VS 2008, /MT build. With the C++ Std. Lib's string class we're at around 92 k. With my String Class and LibCTiny plus a half dozen additions to it I had to make, I'm only at like 6 K!!!!!
I don't see the relation between 64 bit and basic floating point operations (regardless if implemented by emulation, FPU, or vector instructions) when using a C compiler.
Well, perhaps I'm laboring under false knowledge. I have a 32 bit masm created FPU lib, i.e., fpulib.lib, which has within it the function I need, e.g., ...
...which returns through an out parameter my floating point number converted to a Z string. I can't link that 32 bit library into 64 bit code can I? I just assummed not, because of the fact 32 bit dlls can't be directly used by 64 bit binaries.
And thanks again for the information on those various functions deep in the internals of printf. I hadn't looked into that end of it deep enough to determine where they were implemented, but what you told me closes that possibility, apparently.
Where I'm at now is if I'm to use your links to download the GCC sources I apparently have to install and learn to use git. Years ago I worked with Linux some but never became terribly proficient in that world. Never could find anything comparable to the Windows Api for writing GUI apps. About the closest thing I could find that I could marginally tolerate was GTK. I liked XLib but it wasn't suitable for creating GUI apps (no controls (widgets). But unless you tell me I can link 32 bit libraries into 64 bit executables, or somehow I can come up with a 64 bit FPU lib (if I need it), I see studying the GCC sources as my only hope?
You can't off course link a 32-bit library to a 64-bit application. You have to build your own 64-bit library using a 64-bit assembler. But the assembly code should be quite identical (besides the register names / width) because the FPU commands does not depend on 32/64 bit.
Alternatively you can try to port the assembler code to C.
But be aware that finding the code used by the printf functions to format floating point might took some time (there will be calls to other functions located in other files and various macros). Maybe diet libc - a libc optimized for small size[^] is an alternative option.
Note also that the above may use assembler code too.
A quick check with my GLIBC sources show that a starting point might be the file stdio-common/printf_fp.c.
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