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STUN Client

, 20 Apr 2007
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STUN client C# implementation with sample application
Screenshot - stun.jpg

Introduction

STUN - Simple Traversal of User Datagram Protocol (UDP) through Network Address Translators (NATs). In few words, it just helps you to map your local computer IP:port to public IP:port.

STUN working idea is pretty simple. The client just sends a UDP packet out to the STUN server and the server answers back with IP:port you connected. STUN does three tests to detect the NAT type.

In test I, the client sends a STUN Binding Request to a server, 
without any flags set in the CHANGE-REQUEST attribute, 
and without the RESPONSE-ADDRESS attribute. This causes the server 
to send the response back to the address and port that the request came from.
           
In test II, the client sends a Binding Request with both the 
"change IP" and "change port" flags from the CHANGE-REQUEST attribute set.  
              
In test III, the client sends a Binding Request with only the "change port" flag set.
                          
                                    +--------+
                                    |  Test  |
                                    |   I    |
                                    +--------+
                                         |
                                         |
                                         V
                                        /\              /\
                                     N /  \ Y          /  \ Y             +--------+
                      UDP     <-------/Resp\--------->/ IP \------------->|  Test  |
                      Blocked         \ ?  /          \Same/              |   II   |
                                       \  /            \? /               +--------+
                                        \/              \/                    |
                                                         | N                  |
                                                         |                    V
                                                         V                    /\
                                                     +--------+  Sym.      N /  \
                                                     |  Test  |  UDP    <---/Resp\
                                                     |   II   |  Firewall   \ ?  /
                                                     +--------+              \  /
                                                         |                    \/
                                                         V                     |Y
                              /\                         /\                    |
               Symmetric  N  /  \       +--------+   N  /  \                   V
                  NAT  <--- / IP \<-----|  Test  |<--- /Resp\               Open
                            \Same/      |   I    |     \ ?  /               Internet
                             \? /       +--------+      \  /
                              \/                         \/
                              |                           |Y
                              |                           |
                              |                           V
                              |                           Full
                              |                           Cone
                              V              /\
                          +--------+        /  \ Y
                          |  Test  |------>/Resp\---->Restricted
                          |   III  |       \ ?  /
                          +--------+        \  /
                                             \/
                                              |N
                                              |       Port
                                              +------>Restricted

/// <summary>
/// UDP is always blocked.
/// </summary>
UdpBlocked,

/// <summary>
/// No NAT, public IP, no firewall.
/// </summary>
OpenInternet,

/// <summary>
/// No NAT, public IP, but symmetric UDP firewall.
/// </summary>
SymmetricUdpFirewall,

/// <summary>
/// A full cone NAT is one where all requests from the same internal 
/// IP address and port are mapped to the same external IP address and port.
/// Furthermore, any external host can send a packet to the internal host, 
/// by sending a packet to the mapped external address.
/// </summary>
FullCone,

/// <summary>
/// A restricted cone NAT is one where all requests from the same
/// internal IP address and port are mapped to the same external IP address and port.
///  Unlike a full cone NAT, an external host (with IP address X) 
/// can send a packet to the internal host only if the internal host 
/// had previously sent a packet to IP address X.
/// </summary>
RestrictedCone,

/// <summary>
/// A port restricted cone NAT is like a restricted cone NAT, but the restriction 
/// includes port numbers. Specifically, an external host can send a packet, 
/// with source IP address X and source port P, to the internal host only if 
/// the internal host had previously sent a packet to IP address X and port P.
/// </summary>
PortRestrictedCone,

/// <summary>
/// A symmetric NAT is one where all requests 
/// from the same internal IP address and port, 
/// to a specific destination IP address and port, are mapped to the same external 
/// IP address and port.  If the same host sends a packet with the same source address 
/// and port, but to a different destination, a different mapping is used. 
/// Furthermore, only the external host that
/// receives a packet can send a UDP packet back to the internal host.
/// </summary>
Symmetric

Using the Code

// Create new socket for STUN client.
Socket socket = new Socket
    (AddressFamily.InterNetwork,SocketType.Dgram,ProtocolType.Udp);
socket.Bind(new IPEndPoint(IPAddress.Any,0));

// Query STUN server
STUN_Result result = STUN_Client.Query("stunserver.org",3478,socket);
if(result.NetType != STUN_NetType.UdpBlocked){
    // UDP blocked or !!!! bad STUN server
}
else{
    IPEndPoint publicEP = result.PublicEndPoint;
    // Do your stuff
}

History

  • 20.04.2007 - Initial version

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)

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About the Author

Ivar Lumi

Estonia Estonia
No Biography provided

Comments and Discussions

 
QuestionHow i connect to remote machine using Stun Pinmembersr_dusad16-Apr-10 19:49 
AnswerRe: How i connect to remote machine using Stun PinmemberIvar Lumi17-Apr-10 19:24 
AnswerRe: How i connect to remote machine using Stun Pinmemberlok.vikram26-Aug-10 1:32 
GeneralRe: How i connect to remote machine using Stun PinmemberIvar Lumi26-Aug-10 20:16 
AnswerRe: How i connect to remote machine using Stun Pinmembercwienands8-Oct-10 5:23 
Hello,
 
STUN only helps you to determine your own public IP and UDP port. To connect clients directly via UDP you need 'UDP hole punching'. The best article I found on this is here: http://www.brynosaurus.com/pub/net/p2pnat/
 
No matter what, you'll additionally need a rendezvous server, which assists in establishing a direct connection between to UPD clients. However, the public STUN servers are still very helpful. In my case I have a hosted website, where I can deploy HTTP web services. However, I cannot connect to the web server via UDP. So the solution is that clients use a public STUN server to determine their public IP and UDP port, then use an HTTP-based web service to transmit rendezvous information (public IP and port), and finally connect to each other directly via UDP again using the UDP hole punching technique.
 
Hope this helps, Christoph
GeneralRe: How i connect to remote machine using Stun PinmemberIvar Lumi9-Oct-10 3:25 

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