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Article 4 - Android UI Layout and Controls

, 17 Aug 2014 CPOL
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Explore various UserInterface layouts and controls supported by Android

Introduction

In this section we are going to explore the various UI layouts and controls supported by Android.

Layout

Layout showcases how the User Interface is viewable on screens and widgets. Layout can be implemented either of 2 ways during runtime or UI elements in XML.

Benefits of each implementation

  • Runtime Implementation
    • With above implementation user can create ViewGroup and View objects via programmatically and able to access or modify their properties on runtime.
  • UI elements in XML
    • Benefits of displaying the UI elements in XML are segregation of presentation from code behind.

Types of Layout:

  • Flexible Layout
    • LinearLayout
    • RelativeLayout
    • TableLayout
    • AbsoluteLayout (deprecated @ API level 3)
    •  FrameLayout
  • Adapter View
    • List View
    • Grid View

Flexible Layout

                The ultimate purpose of flexible layout is it can be displayed on multiple screens. It can stretch the content based on appropriate screen resolution. To enable this feature we have to set the wrap_content attribute based on need.

Linear Layout

                As the title says the contents are arranged in sequence one by one either horizontal or vertical based on the orientation configuration. The children with highest weight will occupy the left over space on the layout. The attribute name is android:layout_weight="1"

activity_linear_layout.xml

 <LinearLayout xmlns:android="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android</a>"
    xmlns:tools="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/tools">http://schemas.android.com/tools</a>"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:paddingLeft="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingRight="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingTop="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    android:paddingBottom="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    tools:context=".LinearLayout"
    android:orientation="vertical">  

   <EditText
        android:text="@string/first_name"
        android:id="@+id/firstname"
        android:inputType="text"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:focusable="true"/>

   <EditText
        android:text="@string/last_name"
        android:id="@+id/lastname"
        android:inputType="text"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"/>

 <EditText
        android:text="@string/age"
        android:id="@+id/age"
        android:inputType="number"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"/>

<Button
        android:text="@string/submit"
        android:id="@+id/submit"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_gravity="right"/>
</LinearLayout>

string.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>
<string name="app_name">Linear Layout</string>
    <string name="first_name">First Name</string>
    <string name="last_name">Last Name</string>
    <string name="age">Age</string>
    <string name="submit">Submit</string>
    <string name="action_settings">Settings</string>
</resources>
 

Simulation output via Emulator orientation horizontal and vertical

Horizontal Orientation

Linear Layout Orientation Horizontal

Vertical Orientation

Linear Layout Orientation Vertical

 

 

Relative Layout

                As name implies it is purely based on the relative position of nearest control or sibling controls. The positions of controls are placed based on the following attributes above/below and left/right.

activity_relative_layout.xml

<RelativeLayout xmlns:android="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android</a>"
    xmlns:tools="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/tools">http://schemas.android.com/tools</a>"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:paddingLeft="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingRight="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingTop="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    android:paddingBottom="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    tools:context=".RelativeLayout">    

<EditText
        android:text="@string/first_name"
        android:id="@+id/firstname"
        android:inputType="text"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:focusable="true"
       />

<EditText
        android:text="@string/last_name"
        android:id="@+id/lastname"
        android:inputType="text"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_below="@+id/firstname"/>

<EditText
        android:text="@string/age"
        android:id="@+id/age"
        android:inputType="number"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_below="@+id/lastname"/>

<Button
        android:text="@string/submit"
        android:id="@+id/submit"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_gravity="right"
        android:layout_below="@+id/age"
        android:layout_alignParentRight="true"/>

</RelativeLayout>

 

strings.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>
    <string name="app_name">Relative Layout</string>
    <string name="first_name">First Name</string>
    <string name="last_name">Last Name</string>
    <string name="age">Age</string>
    <string name="submit">Submit</string>
    <string name="action_settings">Settings</string>
</resources>

Relative Layout

Table Layout

                It is similar to HTML table format with row and column. Here the elements are TableRow and TableColumn. To align a column on right we have to set the layout attribute and specifying the column # like android:stretchColumns="1" as shown below so the column 1 is extended till the screen width. android:layout_gravity=”right” moves the submit button right on the column 1 as it stretched.

Benefits:

                Alignment of cell content will be uniform whether seen on which screen.

activit_table_layout.xml

<TableLayout xmlns:android="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android</a>"
    xmlns:tools="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/tools">http://schemas.android.com/tools</a>"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:paddingLeft="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingRight="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingTop="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    android:paddingBottom="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    tools:context=".TableLayout"
    android:stretchColumns="1">
   
  <TableRow android:id="@+id/tablerow1"
        android:padding="5dip"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content">
        <TextView
            android:text="@string/first_name"
            android:layout_column="0"
            />
        <EditText
            android:id="@+id/firstname"
            android:inputType="text"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:focusable="true"
            android:layout_column="1"
        />
    </TableRow>
     
    <TableRow android:id="@+id/tablerow2"
        android:padding="5dip"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content">
        <TextView
            android:text="@string/last_name"
            android:layout_column="0"
            />
	<EditText
            android:id="@+id/lastname"
            android:inputType="text"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_column="1"
            />
    </TableRow>

    <TableRow android:id="@+id/tablerow3"
        android:padding="5dip"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content">
        <TextView
            android:text="@string/age"
            android:layout_column="0"
            />
        <EditText
            android:id="@+id/age"
            android:inputType="number"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_column="1"
        />
    
     </TableRow>

     <TableRow android:id="@+id/tablerow4"
        android:padding="5dip"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content">
        <Button
            android:text="@string/submit"
            android:id="@+id/submit"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_gravity="right"
            android:layout_column="1"/>
     </TableRow>
</TableLayout>

strings.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>

    <string name="app_name">Table Layout</string>
    <string name="first_name">First Name</string>
    <string name="last_name">Last Name</string>
    <string name="age">Age</string>
    <string name="submit">Submit</string>
    <string name="action_settings">Settings</string>

</resources>

    Simulation on emulator Table Layout

 

Absolute Layout (deprecated)

This was deprecated @ API level 3. The purpose of this layout was placing control @ absolute position with X & Y coordinates of tablet screen. Position are set based on the following parameters android:layout_x & android:layout_y.

Frame Layout

                This layout act as container and it designed such way it can display a single item. It will helpful when we want to hide and display elements based on need by programmatically or specifying the gravity and show content by overlapping. It always stacks the contents within the layout.

activity_frame_layout.xml

<FrameLayout xmlns:android="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android</a>"
    xmlns:tools="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/tools">http://schemas.android.com/tools</a>"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:paddingLeft="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingRight="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingTop="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    android:paddingBottom="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    tools:context=".FrameLayout">

 <ImageView
        android:src="@drawable/balloon"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_gravity="center"/>

<Button
        android:text="@string/submit"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_gravity="center"/>

<TextView
        android:text="@string/display_name"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_gravity="end"/>
</FrameLayout>

strings.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>
    
    <string name="app_name">Frame Layout</string>
    <string name="display_name">Welcome to Frame Layout!</string>
    <string name="submit">Button above Balloon</string>
    <string name="action_settings">Settings</string>

</resources>

Frame Layout

 

 

Adapter

                Is a connector between Data(Cursor /ArrayList) and Adapter View( ListView / Grid View).

Adapter View

                Is a view to represent the data obtained via connector i.e. adapter. Based on representation it is classified as ListView and GridView

ListView

                Displays the data with scrollable (pagination) feature using the ListAdapter / ArrayAdapter / Cursor Adapter. Below example shows how data can be displayed with ArrayAdapter

 

activity_list_view_layout.xml

<LinearLayout xmlns:android="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android</a>"
    xmlns:tools="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/tools">http://schemas.android.com/tools</a>"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:paddingLeft="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingRight="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingTop="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    android:paddingBottom="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    tools:context=".ListView">

 <ListView android:id="@+id/tamiluyirelluthu"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"></ListView>

</LinearLayout>

ListViewLayout.java

public class ListViewLayout extends ActionBarActivity {

static final String[] tamiluyirelluthukal = new String[] {"அ", "ஆ", "இ", "ஈ", "உ", "ஊ",
            "எ", "ஏ", "ஐ", "ஒ", "ஓ", "ஔ"};

@Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_list_view_layout);

ArrayAdapter adapter =new ArrayAdapter<String>(this,
                android.R.layout.simple_list_item_1,tamiluyirelluthukal);

ListView listview = (ListView) findViewById(R.id.tamiluyirelluthu);
        listview.setAdapter(adapter);
    }

@Override
    public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {
        // Inflate the menu; this adds items to the action bar if it is present.
        getMenuInflater().inflate(R.menu.list_view_layout, menu);
        return true;
    }

@Override
    public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) {
        // Handle action bar item clicks here. The action bar will
        // automatically handle clicks on the Home/Up button, so long
        // as you specify a parent activity in AndroidManifest.xml.
        int id = item.getItemId();
        if (id == R.id.action_settings) {
            return true;
        }
        return super.onOptionsItemSelected(item);
    }
}

strings.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>
  <string name="app_name">ListView Layout</string>
  <string name="action_settings">Settings</string>
</resources>

Simulation on emulator

List view Intial load

ListView after scroll

 

GridView

                Displays the data in Grid format rows and Columns using android:numColumns="auto_fit" &       android:stretchMode="columnWidth". Binding is similar to list item it can be done with adapter the display passion is row and column like matrix. We can specify number of columns based on need by setting the numColumns attribute auto_fit span based on device and data.

activity_grid_view_layout.xml

<LinearLayout xmlns:android="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android</a>"
    xmlns:tools="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/tools">http://schemas.android.com/tools</a>"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:paddingLeft="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingRight="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingTop="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    android:paddingBottom="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    tools:context=".GridViewLayout">

 <GridView android:id="@+id/tamiluyirelluthu"
    android:layout_width="wrap_content"
    android:layout_height="wrap_content"
    android:numColumns="auto_fit"
    android:columnWidth="50dip"
    android:stretchMode="columnWidth"
    />

</LinearLayout>

GridViewLayout.java

package apps.gridviewlayout;

import android.support.v7.app.ActionBarActivity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.Menu;
import android.view.MenuItem;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.AdapterView;
import android.widget.ArrayAdapter;
import android.widget.GridView;
import android.widget.TextView;
import android.widget.Toast;

public class GridViewLayout extends ActionBarActivity {

static final String[] tamiluyirelluthukal = new String[] {"அ", "ஆ", "இ", "ஈ", "உ", "ஊ",
            "எ", "ஏ", "ஐ", "ஒ", "ஓ", "ஔ"};

@Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_grid_view_layout);


	ArrayAdapter adapter =new ArrayAdapter<String>(this,
                android.R.layout.simple_list_item_1,tamiluyirelluthukal);

	GridView gridView = (GridView) findViewById(R.id.tamiluyirelluthu);
        gridView.setAdapter(adapter);

	 gridView.setOnItemClickListener(new AdapterView.OnItemClickListener() {
            public void onItemClick(AdapterView<?> parent, View view, int position, long id)
            {
                Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(),
			((TextView) view).getText(),Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
            }
        });
    }


@Override
    public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {
        // Inflate the menu; this adds items to the action bar if it is present.
        getMenuInflater().inflate(R.menu.grid_view_layout, menu);
        return true;
    }


@Override
    public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) {
        // Handle action bar item clicks here. The action bar will
        // automatically handle clicks on the Home/Up button, so long
        // as you specify a parent activity in AndroidManifest.xml.
        int id = item.getItemId();
        if (id == R.id.action_settings) {
            return true;
        }
        return super.onOptionsItemSelected(item);
    }
}    

strings.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>

  <string name="app_name">GridView Layout</string>
  <string name="action_settings">Settings</string>

</resources>

Simulation on Emulator

GridView Layout with toast

Input Controls

Input Controls are interactive components of application we are going to see the various controls supported by android and examples development by android studio.

Types of Controls

  • Button
  • Textfield
    • EditView
    • AutoCompleteView
  • Checkbox
  • Radio Button
    • RadioGroup
    • RadioButton
  • Toggle button
    • Toggle
    • Switch
  • Spinners
  • Pickers
    • DatePicker
    • TimePicker

Button

  It is a clickable control it can display text / icon or both. This can be achieved with help of various parameter on xml button element like android:text="@string/myname" to display text. To display image alone we can use ImageButton element and setting the src parameter android:src="@drawable/button_icon". To display both text and image on Button control we have to inform where the image display left or right with following parameters android:text="@string/button_text" &   android:drawableLeft="@drawable/button_icon"

activity_button_uicontrols.xml

<LinearLayout xmlns:android="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android</a>"
    xmlns:tools="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/tools">http://schemas.android.com/tools</a>"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:paddingLeft="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingRight="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingTop="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    android:paddingBottom="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    tools:context=".button_uicontrols"
    android:orientation="vertical">

<Button
        android:text="@string/button"
        android:onClick="Display_Toast"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content" />

<ImageButton
        android:src="@drawable/balloon"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:id="@+id/imgbutton"/>

<Button
        android:id="@+id/imgtextbutton"
        android:drawableTop="@drawable/ic_launcher"
        android:text="@string/bellow_image"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content" />

</LinearLayout>

strings.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>
    <string name="app_name">Andorid UIControls - Buttons</string>
    <string name="action_settings">Settings</string>
    <string name="bellow_image">Text Below Image</string>
    <string name="button">Button Click</string>
</resources>        

button_uicontrols.java

package apps.buttonuicontrols;

import android.support.v7.app.ActionBarActivity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.Menu;
import android.view.MenuItem;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.ImageButton;
import android.widget.Toast;
import android.widget.Button;

public class button_uicontrols extends ActionBarActivity {

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_button_uicontrols);

     ImageButton imgButton = (ImageButton) findViewById(R.id.imgbutton);

     imgButton.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener(){
            public void onClick(View v)
            {
                Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(),"Image Button Clicked",
				Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
            }
        });

     Button txt_img_button = (Button) findViewById(R.id.imgtextbutton);

     txt_img_button.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener(){
            public void onClick(View v)
            {
                Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(),"Text Below Image Button Clicked",
				Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
            }
        });
}

    public void Display_Toast(View v)
    {
        Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(),"Button clicked",Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {
        // Inflate the menu; this adds items to the action bar if it is present.
        getMenuInflater().inflate(R.menu.button_uicontrols, menu);
        return true;
    }


    @Override
    public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) {
        // Handle action bar item clicks here. The action bar will
        // automatically handle clicks on the Home/Up button, so long
        // as you specify a parent activity in AndroidManifest.xml.
        int id = item.getItemId();
        if (id == R.id.action_settings) {
            return true;
        }
        return super.onOptionsItemSelected(item);
    }

}

Andorid UIControls -  Buttons

 

Text field

                This input control user can key in text or number or alphanumeric based on need. Based on operation it can be EditView or AutocompleteView.

EditView the keyboard input can be specified by the following parameter android:inputtype "text" à Normal text keyboard,"textEmailAddress" à Normal text keyboard with the @ character,"textUri" à Normal text keyboard with the / character, "number" à Basic number keypad,"phone" à Phone-style keypad. With above attribute we can control the textfield behavior to see other properties and combinational please refer the following link which explain in detail.

http://developer.android.com/reference/android/widget/TextView.html#attr_android:inputType

activity_textfield.xml

<TableLayout xmlns:android="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android</a>"
    xmlns:tools="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/tools">http://schemas.android.com/tools</a>"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:paddingLeft="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingRight="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingTop="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    android:paddingBottom="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    android:stretchColumns="1"
    tools:context=".textfield">

 <TableRow android:id="@+id/tablerow1">
    <TextView
        android:text="@string/numericfield"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_column="0"/>
     <EditText
         android:layout_width="wrap_content"
         android:layout_height="wrap_content"
         android:layout_column="1"
         android:inputType="number"/>
    </TableRow>

    <TableRow android:id="@+id/tablerow2">
        <TextView
            android:text="@string/email_address"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_column="0"/>
        <EditText
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_column="1"
            android:inputType="textEmailAddress"/>
    </TableRow>

</TableLayout>

strings.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>
    <string name="app_name">TextField</string>
    <string name="numericfield">Enter Number:</string>
    <string name="email_address">Enter EmailAddress:</string>
    <string name="action_settings">Settings</string>
</resources>        

textfield.java

package apps.textfield;

import android.support.v7.app.ActionBarActivity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.Menu;
import android.view.MenuItem;

public class textfield extends ActionBarActivity {

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_textfield);
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {
        // Inflate the menu; this adds items to the action bar if it is present.
        getMenuInflater().inflate(R.menu.textfield, menu);
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) {
        // Handle action bar item clicks here. The action bar will
        // automatically handle clicks on the Home/Up button, so long
        // as you specify a parent activity in AndroidManifest.xml.
        int id = item.getItemId();
        if (id == R.id.action_settings) {
            return true;
        }
        return super.onOptionsItemSelected(item);
    }

}
    

Android  UIControls - TextFields

 

AutoCompleteView

This input control give suggestion based on keys stroke in that match the suggested list.

activity_auto_complete_view_text.xml

<TableLayout xmlns:android="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android</a>"
    xmlns:tools="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/tools">http://schemas.android.com/tools</a>"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:paddingLeft="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingRight="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingTop="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    android:paddingBottom="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    android:stretchColumns="1"
    tools:context=".AutoCompleteViewText">

    <TableRow android:id="@+id/tablerow1">
        <TextView
            android:text="Fruits"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_column="0"/>
        <AutoCompleteTextView
            android:id="@+id/autocompleteText"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_column="1"/>
    </TableRow>

</TableLayout> 

strings.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>

    <string name="app_name">Android UIControls - AutoCompleteTextView</string>
    <string name="action_settings">Settings</string>
    <string-array name="fruits_array">
        <item>Apple</item>
        <item>American Raspery</item>
        <item>American ChesNut</item>
        <item>American Grape</item>
        <item>African Mango</item>
        <item>Apricot</item>
        <item>American Cherry Orange</item>
    </string-array>

</resources>        

AutoCompleteViewText.java

package apps.autocompleteviewtext;

import android.support.v7.app.ActionBarActivity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.Menu;
import android.view.MenuItem;
import android.widget.ArrayAdapter;
import android.widget.AutoCompleteTextView;

public class AutoCompleteViewText extends ActionBarActivity {

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_auto_complete_view_text);

        AutoCompleteTextView autoCompleteTextView = 
			(AutoCompleteTextView) findViewById(R.id.autocompleteText);

        String[] fruitslist = getResources().getStringArray(R.array.fruits_array);
        ArrayAdapter<String> arrayAdapter =
                new ArrayAdapter<String>(this, 
			android.R.layout.simple_dropdown_item_1line,fruitslist);

        autoCompleteTextView.setAdapter(arrayAdapter);
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {
        // Inflate the menu; this adds items to the action bar if it is present.
        getMenuInflater().inflate(R.menu.auto_complete_view_text, menu);
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) {
        // Handle action bar item clicks here. The action bar will
        // automatically handle clicks on the Home/Up button, so long
        // as you specify a parent activity in AndroidManifest.xml.
        int id = item.getItemId();
        if (id == R.id.action_settings) {
            return true;
        }
        return super.onOptionsItemSelected(item);
    }
}   

Android UI Controls - AutoCompleteView

 

Checkbox

This input control which allows us to select single or multiple value based on need. The below examples let you to select multiple OS and the selected OS display as Toast on Emulator

activity_checkbox_control.xml

<TableLayout xmlns:android="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android</a>"
    xmlns:tools="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/tools">http://schemas.android.com/tools</a>"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:paddingLeft="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingRight="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingTop="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    android:paddingBottom="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    tools:context=".CheckboxControl"
    android:stretchColumns="1">

    <TableRow
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content">
        <TextView android:text="Mobile OS"  />
    </TableRow>

    <TableRow>
            <CheckBox android:id="@+id/checkbox_blackberry"
                android:text="@string/blackberry"
                android:layout_height="wrap_content"
                android:layout_width="wrap_content"
                android:onClick="onCheckboxClicked" />
    </TableRow>

    <TableRow>
        <CheckBox android:id="@+id/checkbox_apple"
            android:text="@string/apple"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:onClick="onCheckboxClicked" />
    </TableRow>

    <TableRow>
        <CheckBox android:id="@+id/checkbox_android"
            android:text="@string/android"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:onClick="onCheckboxClicked" />
    </TableRow>

    <TableRow>
        <CheckBox android:id="@+id/checkbox_windows"
            android:text="@string/windows"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:onClick="onCheckboxClicked" />
    </TableRow>

</TableLayout>

strings.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>

    <string name="app_name">Android UIControls - Checkbox Control</string>
    <string name="action_settings">Settings</string>
    <string name="blackberry">2000 Blackberry</string>
    <string name="apple">2007 Apple</string>
    <string name="android">2008 Android 1.0</string>
    <string name="windows">2010 Windows Phone</string>

</resources>

CheckboxControl.java

package apps.checkboxcontrol;

import android.support.v7.app.ActionBarActivity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.Menu;
import android.view.MenuItem;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.CheckBox;
import android.widget.Toast;

public class CheckboxControl extends ActionBarActivity {

    String selectedMsg = "";

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_checkbox_control);
    }

    public void onCheckboxClicked(View view) {

        boolean checked = ((CheckBox) view).isChecked();

        switch(view.getId()) {
            case R.id.checkbox_blackberry:
                if (checked)
                    selectedMsg = selectedMsg + "BlackBerry |";
                break;
            case R.id.checkbox_apple:
                if (checked)
                    selectedMsg = selectedMsg + "Apple |";
                break;
            case R.id.checkbox_android:
                if (checked)
                    selectedMsg = selectedMsg + "Android |";
                break;
            case R.id.checkbox_windows:
                if (checked)
                    selectedMsg = selectedMsg + "Windows Phone |";
                break;
        }

        Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(),selectedMsg,Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {
        // Inflate the menu; this adds items to the action bar if it is present.
        getMenuInflater().inflate(R.menu.checkbox_control, menu);
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) {
        // Handle action bar item clicks here. The action bar will
        // automatically handle clicks on the Home/Up button, so long
        // as you specify a parent activity in AndroidManifest.xml.
        int id = item.getItemId();
        if (id == R.id.action_settings) {
            return true;
        }
        return super.onOptionsItemSelected(item);
    }
}

Android UIControls - Checkbox Control

 

RadioButtons

This input control allows user to select single option within the group. Radiobutton has click event oncClick and based isChecked property we will know the selected RadioButton

activity_radiobutton_control.xml

<TableLayout xmlns:android="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android</a>"
    xmlns:tools="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/tools">http://schemas.android.com/tools</a>"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:paddingLeft="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingRight="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingTop="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    android:paddingBottom="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    tools:context=".RadiobuttonControl"
    android:stretchColumns="1">

    <TableRow android:id="@+id/tablerow1"
        android:padding="5dip"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content">

        <TextView
            android:text="@string/gender"
            android:layout_column="0"
            />

        <RadioGroup
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:orientation="horizontal"
            android:layout_column="1"
            >

            <RadioButton android:id="@+id/male"
                android:text="Male" android:layout_height="wrap_content"
                android:layout_width="wrap_content"
                android:onClick="onRadioButtonClicked" />
            <RadioButton android:id="@+id/female"
                android:text="Female" android:layout_height="wrap_content"
                android:layout_width="wrap_content"
                android:onClick="onRadioButtonClicked" />

        </RadioGroup>

    </TableRow>

    <TableRow android:id="@+id/tablerow2"
        android:padding="5dip"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content">

        <TextView
            android:text="@string/martial_status"
            android:layout_column="0"
            />

        <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:orientation="vertical"
            android:layout_column="1"
            >

            <RadioButton android:id="@+id/single"
                android:text="Single" android:layout_height="wrap_content"
                android:layout_width="wrap_content"
                android:onClick="onRadioButtonClicked" />
            <RadioButton android:id="@+id/married"
                android:text="Married" android:layout_height="wrap_content"
                android:layout_width="wrap_content"
                android:onClick="onRadioButtonClicked" />
            <RadioButton android:id="@+id/other"
                android:text="Other" android:layout_height="wrap_content"
                android:layout_width="wrap_content"
                android:onClick="onRadioButtonClicked" />

        </RadioGroup>

    </TableRow>

</TableLayout>
   

strings.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>

    <string name="app_name">Android UIControls - RadioButton</string>
    <string name="action_settings">Settings</string>
    <string name="gender">Gender</string>
    <string name="martial_status">Martial Status</string>

</resources>

RadiobuttonControl.java

package apps.radiobuttoncontrol;

import android.support.v7.app.ActionBarActivity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.Menu;
import android.view.MenuItem;
import android.widget.RadioButton;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.Toast;

public class RadiobuttonControl extends ActionBarActivity {

    String selectedMsg = "";

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_radiobutton_control);
    }

    public void onRadioButtonClicked(View view) {

        boolean checked = ((RadioButton) view).isChecked();

        switch(view.getId()) {
            case R.id.male:
                if (checked)
                    selectedMsg = "Male |";
                    break;
            case R.id.female:
                if (checked)
                    selectedMsg = "Female |";
                    break;
            case R.id.single:
                if (checked)
                    selectedMsg = selectedMsg + "Single |";
                break;
            case R.id.married:
                if (checked)
                    selectedMsg = selectedMsg + "Married |";
                break;
            case R.id.other:
                if (checked)
                    selectedMsg = selectedMsg + "Other |";
                break;
        }

        Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(),selectedMsg,Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();

    }

    @Override
    public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {
        // Inflate the menu; this adds items to the action bar if it is present.
        getMenuInflater().inflate(R.menu.radiobutton_control, menu);
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) {
        // Handle action bar item clicks here. The action bar will
        // automatically handle clicks on the Home/Up button, so long
        // as you specify a parent activity in AndroidManifest.xml.
        int id = item.getItemId();
        if (id == R.id.action_settings) {
            return true;
        }
        return super.onOptionsItemSelected(item);
    }

}

Andorid UIControls -  RadioButton and RadioButtonGroup

 

ToggleButtons

Toggle button allow the user to set the state to on and off. Switch is another toggle button which was supported from Android 4.0 (API 14 level). In build version minimum supported version is set for API level 10 on my environment and this shows an alert as shown below.

If we run with that it will throw runtime error as like this java.lang.ClassNotFoundException: android.view.Switch in loader dalvik.system.PathClassLoader

activity_toggle_button_control.xml

<TableLayout xmlns:android="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android</a>"
    xmlns:tools="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/tools">http://schemas.android.com/tools</a>"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:paddingLeft="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingRight="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingTop="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    android:paddingBottom="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    android:stretchColumns="1"
    tools:context=".ToggleButtonControl">

    <TableRow android:id="@+id/tablerow1">

        <TextView
            android:text="Toggle Button"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_column="0"/>

        <ToggleButton
            android:id="@+id/toggleButton"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_column="1"
            android:textOn="On"
            android:textOff="Off"
            android:onClick="onToggleClicked"/>

    </TableRow>

    <TableRow android:id="@+id/tablerow2">

        <TextView
            android:text="@string/switch_button"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_column="0"/>

        <Switch
            android:id="@+id/switch_content"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_column="1"
            android:textOn="On"
            android:textOff="Off"
            android:onClick="onSwitchClicked"/>

    </TableRow>

</TableLayout>   

strings.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>

    <string name="app_name">Android UIControl - ToggleButton</string>
    <string name="switch_button">Switch Button</string>
    <string name="action_settings">Settings</string>

</resources>

ToggleButtonControl.java

package apps.togglebuttoncontrol;

import android.support.v7.app.ActionBarActivity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.Menu;
import android.view.MenuItem;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.Switch;
import android.widget.ToggleButton;
import android.widget.Toast;

public class ToggleButtonControl extends ActionBarActivity {

    String selectedMsg = "";

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_toggle_button_control);
    }

    public void onToggleClicked(View view)
    {
        boolean checked = ((ToggleButton) view).isChecked();
        selectedMsg = "Toggle Off";
        if (checked)
        {
            selectedMsg = "Toggle On";
        }
        Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(),selectedMsg,Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
    }

    public void onSwitchClicked(View view)
    {
        boolean checked = ((Switch) view).isChecked();
        selectedMsg = "Switch Off";
        if (checked)
        {
            selectedMsg = "Switch On";
        }
        Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(),selectedMsg,Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {
        // Inflate the menu; this adds items to the action bar if it is present.
        getMenuInflater().inflate(R.menu.toggle_button_control, menu);
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) {
        // Handle action bar item clicks here. The action bar will
        // automatically handle clicks on the Home/Up button, so long
        // as you specify a parent activity in AndroidManifest.xml.
        int id = item.getItemId();
        if (id == R.id.action_settings) {
            return true;
        }
        return super.onOptionsItemSelected(item);
    }
}

 

Android UIControls - ToggleButton

Android UI Controls - Toggle Button Switch error on lower API Level

Android UIControls - ToggleButton and Switch

Spinners

This input control is similar to dropdown list where user can pick one value.

activity_spinner_control.xml

<TableLayout xmlns:android="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android</a>"
    xmlns:tools="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/tools">http://schemas.android.com/tools</a>"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:paddingLeft="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingRight="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingTop="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    android:paddingBottom="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    tools:context=".SpinnerControl"
    android:stretchColumns="1">

    <TableRow android:id="@+id/tablerow1"
        android:padding="5dip"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content">
        <TextView
            android:text="Fruits"
            android:layout_column="0"
            />

       <Spinner android:id="@+id/spinner_control"
           android:layout_width="fill_parent"
           android:layout_height="wrap_content" />
    </TableRow>

</TableLayout>

strings.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>

    <string name="app_name">Android UIControls - Spinner Control</string>
    <string name="action_settings">Settings</string>

    <string-array name="fruits_array">
        <item>Apple</item>
        <item>Mango</item>
        <item>Grape</item>
        <item>Strawberry</item>
        <item>Raspberry</item>
    </string-array>

</resources>

SpinnerControl.java

package apps.spinnercontrol;

import android.support.v7.app.ActionBarActivity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.Menu;
import android.view.MenuItem;
import android.widget.ArrayAdapter;
import android.widget.Spinner;

public class SpinnerControl extends ActionBarActivity {

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_spinner_control);

        Spinner spinnerControl = (Spinner) findViewById(R.id.spinner_control);

        ArrayAdapter<CharSequence> arrayAdapter = ArrayAdapter.createFromResource(this,
                R.array.fruits_array,android.R.layout.simple_spinner_item);

        arrayAdapter.setDropDownViewResource(android.R.layout.simple_spinner_dropdown_item);
        spinnerControl.setAdapter(arrayAdapter);
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {
        // Inflate the menu; this adds items to the action bar if it is present.
        getMenuInflater().inflate(R.menu.spinner_control, menu);
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) {
        // Handle action bar item clicks here. The action bar will
        // automatically handle clicks on the Home/Up button, so long
        // as you specify a parent activity in AndroidManifest.xml.
        int id = item.getItemId();
        if (id == R.id.action_settings) {
            return true;
        }
        return super.onOptionsItemSelected(item);
    }
}

Android UIControls - Spinner on API Level 18 and above

Andorid UIControls - Spinner Control API Level 10

 

Pickers

Two types of picker supported on DatePicker and TimePicker. Picker can be viewed with help of appropriate Dialog like DatePickerDialog and TimePickerDialog respectively which is supported by DialogFragment which is supported from Android 3.0(API level 10) and it is supported backward compatibility till Android 1.6.

activity_picker_control.xml

 <TableLayout xmlns:android="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android</a>"
    xmlns:tools="<a href="http://schemas.android.com/tools">http://schemas.android.com/tools</a>"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:paddingLeft="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingRight="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingTop="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    android:paddingBottom="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    tools:context=".PickerControl">

    <TableRow>

        <TextView android:text="@string/timePicker"/>

        <TimePicker
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:id="@+id/timePicker"
            android:layout_column="1" />

    </TableRow>

    <TableRow>
        <TextView android:text="@string/datePicker"/>

        <DatePicker
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:id="@+id/datePicker"
            android:layout_column="1"/>

    </TableRow>

</TableLayout>

strings.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>

    <string name="app_name">Android UIControls - Picker Control</string>
    <string name="timePicker">Time Picker</string>
    <string name="datePicker">Date Picker</string>
    <string name="action_settings">Settings</string>

</resources>

PickerControl.java

package apps.pickercontrol;

import android.support.v7.app.ActionBarActivity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.Menu;
import android.view.MenuItem;

public class PickerControl extends ActionBarActivity {

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_picker_control);
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {
        // Inflate the menu; this adds items to the action bar if it is present.
        getMenuInflater().inflate(R.menu.picker_control, menu);
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) {
        // Handle action bar item clicks here. The action bar will
        // automatically handle clicks on the Home/Up button, so long
        // as you specify a parent activity in AndroidManifest.xml.
        int id = item.getItemId();
        if (id == R.id.action_settings) {
            return true;
        }
        return super.onOptionsItemSelected(item);
    }
}

 

Android UIControls - Picker API Level 10

Andorid UIControls - Picker Control API18

 

Reference:

http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/ui/declaring-layout.html

http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/ui/controls.html

http://developer.android.com/guide/practices/screens_support.html

http://developer.android.com/training/best-ui.html

http://www.mkyong.com/tutorials/android-tutorial/

 

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)

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About the Author

Sivamurugan Perumal

United States United States
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Comments and Discussions

 
GeneralThanks for the entry! Pin
Kevin Priddle27-Aug-14 7:18
staffKevin Priddle27-Aug-14 7:18 
GeneralRe: Thanks for the entry! Pin
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memberMember 1102756827-Aug-14 11:48 
GeneralMy vote of 3 Pin
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GeneralVery Good Article Pin
Satish RP ,PMP21-Aug-14 6:30
memberSatish RP ,PMP21-Aug-14 6:30 
GeneralRe: Very Good Article Pin
Sivamurugan Perumal21-Aug-14 12:22
memberSivamurugan Perumal21-Aug-14 12:22 
QuestionImages not showing. Pin
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memberAndré Pereira18-Aug-14 1:03 
AnswerRe: Images not showing. Pin
SivamuruganPerumal18-Aug-14 2:49
memberSivamuruganPerumal18-Aug-14 2:49 

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