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I also should've mentioned Knockout.js, Bootstrap, jQuery UI, Jade, Sockets.io etc.
Personally I haven't used TypeScript, but it's been on my things to try list for a while now.
Maybe write this up as an article or tip/trick while going just a wee bit more in depth and breadth? I'm currently also preparing my jump dive into web dev and have been looking for a good high altitude overview that lifts the confusion about the multitude of technologies and terms, without that marketing gibberish on some websites - and your message here is the best in that regard that I've come across so far!
PS: maybe a reference would be the most fitting category for publication
If the brain were so simple we could understand it, we would be so simple we couldn't. — Lyall Watson
your message here is the best in that regard that I've come across so far!
I actually wrote that down in a few minutes from the top of my head.
Funny as I was in the OP's shoes just over a year ago
I've written something like it in my blogs, especially the first[^] and eighth[^] on web dev.
I said you need to know a BIT about them, not MASTER them
You don't need to master anything (although it's a pro).
Some basic skills allow you to use Bootstrap, jQuery (UI), and that will do a lot for you already
And let's be honest, how many of us are true masters of HTML and CSS? That's for designers, not programmers!
I am now retired and got into web development for the Bowls Club I belong to. I created a web site using just ASP.NET, MVC, HTML and CSS using C# as the programming language. It was pretty successful.
I find they give me all the tools I need to create whatever I is required. I don't have much time to start learning any more fancy tools or I won't get the job finished.
Something else not mentioned as front-end framework is Bootstrap. I use php within this framework to keep everything responsive.
Also if you're going to mention CMS, there's also Joomla which is built on Bootstrap.