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I just realized this is probably regional. Maybe you do it that way in Norway.
I have some Le Orme sheet music, and those weird Italians don't write A minor as "a" or "Am". They actually write "La m" (La from do-re-mi... and m = minore). I rarely think in solfege. And if I do, it's relative: "la" = submediant (^6). But they use it absolutely: "la" = A, regardless of the key. Needless to say, I find their annotations useless.
Accelerando - Conjugation of the infinite "Accelerare" in italian; In English, "to accelerate": The "Gerundio" (a form of the verb), is like the -ing in English.
Most of the musical notation currently used was invented in Italy many centuries ago (even the pentagram, for example). In Italy the musical notes are represented by syllables which traditionally are: DO, RE, MI, FA, SOL, LA, SI with LA to be the equivalent to A in international notation.
All words like crescendo, diminuendo, piano, pianissimo, etc. etc. they are Italian words used as an international jargon for the music.
I wouldn't call it "international jargon for the music", but "established notational conventions".
You'll see acc. in all sorts of sheet music. It has been used for centuries.
We had a conductor that took pleasure in playing with such terms, like he could ask for an "accelerandissimo" - a small increase in the beat rate. Or "acelerando moltissimo", not a very strong accelerando (like an "accelerando molto") but above average.
I think there's some potential for confusion here.
Regarding key signatures in scores: A score with one sharp is traditionally interpreted to be either G major or E minor. There is no other indication of whether or not the key signature implies G major or E minor unless it is included in the title such as "Polonaise in Ab Minor." (I say traditional because there are non-traditional scoring methods too.)
Regarding chords, there are a variety of ways to show chords in a score. For example, a C minor chord can be designated as Cm or C-. A G major 7 can be GMAJ or G^. And so on.
Now 7989122's comment about major/minor scales is interesting to me. I've never used a score that does it that way, but it makes sense on a certain level. I don't need that sort of notation in my arranging, but hey, maybe I've learned something new.
If you sign up with the Sonic Scores forum (no affiliation) you can ask questions and get a lot of helpful answers from professional musicians. They also know a lot about MIDI. There are other music notation apps that have active forums.
One of Norway's greatest modern folk singers, Lillebjørn Nilsen, tellsabout the first song he wrote: As a teenage schoolboy, he has an essay assignment, "Explain and anlyze one of your favorite poems". So he started out by writing the poem. Then he made up a tune for it, and performed it in a folk singer's club. In the audience was Geirr Tveitt, well known Norwegian composer. He went up to the young boy and remarked "Your have made a song very true to the traditions, and in a hypo-mixolydian scale!" To which Lillebjørn replied: "Huh? What's that?" At home, he looked up "hypo-mixolydian" in his music dictonary, to discover that Geirr Tveitt was right.
For the curious ones: You can hear the first verse and a half of this song in a Scottish translation (it can hardly be called "English" ) at Adam McNaughtan: Dance Noo Laddie[^]. I like this version as much as the original!
I guess English speaking musicians have reminders, like the Norwegian "Gå Du Anton Etter Henriks FISkestang", giving the sharp scales G, D, A, E, H, F# . (B is called H in Germanic languages, and sharp is an "iss" suffix.) It makes no sense translating it for use in English - "Go, You Anton, to Fech Henrik's Fishing Rod" - the initials don't match the scales at all. But I am quite sure that there are similar rules in English. There is of course another similar rule for the flats scales.
Standard six string guitar tuning is, in Norway, by the rule "En Annen Dag Gikk Han Ensom" (another day, he was walking alone). Just as untranslatable as he sharp scales rule, but I am sure there are English rules for that.
(Funny parallel: Anyone who has picked up an ukulele, knows that it is tuned to "My Dog Has Fleas". I learned that sequence of notes as a kid, never knowing why it was called that. Less than a year ago, I first heard the tune about the dog. Appearently, every single kid in the USA knows that nursery rhyme from infancy. In Norway, we don't.)
For some reason the idea of norwegian ukulele players makes me grin like an idiot.
As far as your mnemonics, we have similar things in English, but it's not so much memorizing them as trying to understand them that vexes me. The "why" of it eludes me other than "it sounds appealing" and I suspect that answer lies in higher math, which is typically well beyond me. But since it doesn't make sense to me otherwise, it's hard for me to understand it.
I need to deconstruct things in order to grok them, whereas it seems most of my musician friends don't, or at least don't care about the mechanics behind the things like scales. They just *use* them - and well! I don't get how.
I can play a little too, but also, I don't understand *how* I do it. I just do it, but not well.
It bugs me trying to approach it, because so much of it is just opaque to me.
I suggest to read it carefully and try to understand. It is formal, at least for me. From all what I read from you it should not be a big problem for you. Once you got it, it will help you a lot.
Finally, it is much easier than all the parser stuff you presented here
It does not solve my Problem, but it answers my question
This is what I came up with after a lot of googling on the 'fifths' that was mentioned earlier. I use it in my MIDI sequencer. I'm relatively sure I got it right, but not absolutely, so if anyone sees anything I've screwed up, feel free to give me hell! (And I see I should have used non-caps for some, from another comment!) - edit: fixed