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Hello I have been stuck on various issues while following a guide on how to setup a shopping cart in nodeJS/Express/MongoDb. The guide is a few years old , and I have been trying to find help in the comments with no luck. My issue is that when trying to start the server , I get an error saying : TypeError : passport.authenticate is not a function.

it is refering to my index.js file which looks like this :

var express = require('express');

var router = express.Router();

var Product = require('D:/Other/Projects/Code/Powershell/shopping-cart/models/product');

var csrf = require('csurf');

var passport = require('D:/Other/Projects/Code/Powershell/shopping-cart/config/passport.js');

var csrfProtection = csrf();


/* GET home page. */

router.get('/', function(req, res, next) {

  Product.find(function(err, docs) {

    var productChunks = [];

    var chunkSize = 3;

    for (var i = 0; i < docs.length; i += chunkSize) {

           productChunks.push(docs.slice(i, i + chunkSize));


    res.render('shop/index', { title: 'Shopping Cart', products: productChunks });



router.get('/user/signup', function (req, res, next) {

   res.render('user/signup', {csrfToken: req.csrfToken()});

});'/user/signup', passport.authenticate('local.signup'), {

  successRedirect: '/user/profile',

  failureRedirect: '/user/signup',

  failureFlash: true


router.get('/user/profile', function(req, res, next) {



module.exports = router;

And this is how my app.js file is looking :

var createError = require('http-errors');

var express = require('express');

var path = require('path');

var cookieParser = require('cookie-parser');

var logger = require('morgan');

var routes = require('./routes/index')(passport);

var indexRouter = require('./routes/index');

var usersRouter = require('./routes/users');

var expressHbs = require('express-handlebars');

var mongoose =require('mongoose');

var app = express();

var session = require('express-session');

var passport = require('passport');

var flash = require('connect-flash');

const bodyParser = require('body-parser');

mongoose.connect('mongodb://localhost:27017/shopping', {useNewUrlParser: true, useUnifiedTopology: true});

mongoose.connection.on('error', err => {

  throw 'failed to connect to MongoDB';



// view engine setup

app.engine('.hbs', expressHbs({defaultLayout: 'layout', extname:'.hbs'}))

app.set('view engine', '.hbs');

app.use(bodyParser.urlencoded({extended: false}));




app.use(express.urlencoded({ extended: false }));


app.use(session({secret: 'mysupersecret', resave: false, saveUninitialized: false}))




app.use(express.static(path.join(__dirname, 'public')));

app.use('/', indexRouter);

app.use('/users', usersRouter);

// catch 404 and forward to error handler

app.use(function(req, res, next) {



// error handler

app.use(function(err, req, res, next) {

  // set locals, only providing error in development

  res.locals.message = err.message;

  res.locals.error ='env') === 'development' ? err : {};

  // render the error page

  res.status(err.status || 500);



module.exports = app;

Any hints on what could be the issue? all help is appreciated, thanks!

What I have tried:

var routes = require('./routes/index')(passport);

I read on some posts that this fixed the issue but it did not fix it in my case.

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