In response to your comments..
Quote:-Is the data in this table modified in any way?
You would need to know if there is any audit of data changes on the table. It might be a "temporal
]" table for example or there may be asssociated Triggers that create audit entries
]. Or the table itself might have columns that record when it was last updated and by whom (this is also often done by triggers).
You could always examine the Transaction logs - The Transaction Log (SQL Server) - SQL Server | Microsoft Docs
You may be synchronising this data with a copy - in which case look at Synchronize Data - SQL Server | Microsoft Docs
] or SQL Server Replication - SQL Server | Microsoft Docs
Quote:-What is the data refresh frequency of this table?
This very much depends on how the table is used. If it is application facing then you would need to know how often users access the application or you could use one of the techniques above to derive it. There may be regular jobs that update the data - in which case have a look at SQL Server Agent - SQL Server Agent | Microsoft Docs
Quote:-Do they keep historical data for each month this gets loaded? e.g. to do need to run a query to always grab the latest INFO table?
No idea what the latest INFO table is, but I assume you would access Job information to see how this table is queried/backed up for this purpose, or examine the actual data in the table itself.
You've got a lot of studying to do! Good luck with it