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When Creating An Interface and/or Abstract Class is an Overkill

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13 Oct 2016CPOL4 min read 14.9K   4   5
This is a small tip containing my thoughts on why we should not blindly create interfaces and/or abstract class for each and every class in our application.


This is a small tip containing my thoughts on why we should not blindly create interfaces and/or abstract class for each and every class in our application. These are more of thoughts and some people may not agree with my school of thought, but the idea here is to share my opinion with others so that others can share their thoughts and I/we will get to learn from them.


The other day, I was having a discussion with someone when I suggested abstracting out 3rd party library calls in a class so that the calling application can only depend on this class. The rationale behind this suggestion was just to have a single point which is communicating with the 3rd party library rather than having the calls to this library scattered all over the application code. In future, if we decide to use another 3rd party library, only the internal implementation of this class needs to change and the callers will remain unaffected.

The solution to this was designed in such a way that the new implementation contained an interface, an abstract class implementing this interface and a concrete class containing the actual calls to the library. Now in normal circumstances, I would have said that this is an elegant solution since we have the Dependency Inversion principle being followed here with proper interface and all. But this time, it made me think whether we really need the interface and abstract class.

I am totally in favor of using interfaces, abstract class and dependency inversion principle. Please read the following articles to view my take on them:

But sometimes, creating an interface and abstract class might be an overkill. Let's see why.

Why Do We Need An Interface

Interface is needed mostly to define a contract. The callers can use the interface and choose to select any concrete implementation fulfilling this contract by either letting the concrete implementation getting injected or by using a factory or service locater. The important thing to understand is that "caller can choose" is the real deal here. Now imagine a scenario like validating an email format. Will there be any scenario where the caller needs to selectively choose a class providing this functionality. If the answer to this question is "No", then why do we need an interface. Why can't the caller use this class directly.

So how to decide whether we should or should not create an interface. Well the answer is when we want to define a contract that can be fulfilled by multiple concrete classes and these multiple concrete classes can coexist in the application and the caller will be calling them selectively based on some conditions. If we have a scenario where it is not at all possible to have multiple concrete implementation co-existing in an application, perhaps creating an interface is not needed and if we do, it will be an overkill.

The point here is that we should not be creating interfaces for every class just for the sake of creating them. There should be a justifiable need to create an interface. Also, extensibility and flexibility should be considered when choosing to create an interface. But if we are fairly certain that we don't need to enforce a contract and it's not possible to have the multiple concrete implementation to coexist, perhaps we should not create an interface at all and use the concrete class directly.

Why and When We Need An Abstract Class

First things first, abstraction and abstract class are different things. Abstraction is what a class provides to its callers and abstract class is a language construct. The question here is when should we create an abstract class. The answer to that should be - whenever we have the possibility of multiple concrete implementation to coexist and there is some default and/or common behavior required for these concrete implementations, we should create an abstract class and put these default/common behavior in this abstract class. This abstract class will now implement our interface and the concrete classes will inherit from this abstract class.

Points of Interest

Using object oriented principles and practices is essential to create good software. But we should first understand the rationale behind why these practices exist and what problem these patterns are trying to solve. Then only, we should start using them in our applications. Otherwise, if we start using these practices without even having a need for them, the resulting design/code could be an overkill.

We should try to remember KISS (Keep it Simple, Stupid) and at the same time, analyze the need of the applications and then start designing our solution accordingly. And this is valid not just for the interfaces and abstract class, but also for design and architectural patterns. We should not be including patterns in our design just for the sake of using them but there should be a justifiable need for their use and then only we should use it.

This has been written from the beginner's perspective. I hope this has been informative.


  • 13th October, 2016: First version


This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)

Written By
India India

I Started my Programming career with C++. Later got a chance to develop Windows Form applications using C#. Currently using C#, ASP.NET & ASP.NET MVC to create Information Systems, e-commerce/e-governance Portals and Data driven websites.

My interests involves Programming, Website development and Learning/Teaching subjects related to Computer Science/Information Systems. IMO, C# is the best programming language and I love working with C# and other Microsoft Technologies.

  • Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist (MCTS): Web Applications Development with Microsoft .NET Framework 4
  • Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist (MCTS): Accessing Data with Microsoft .NET Framework 4
  • Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist (MCTS): Windows Communication Foundation Development with Microsoft .NET Framework 4

If you like my articles, please visit my website for more:[^]

  • Microsoft MVP 2015

Comments and Discussions

Questioninterview question Pin
Bheesham Kumar Sharma21-Aug-18 1:12
Bheesham Kumar Sharma21-Aug-18 1:12 
QuestionSo when i use abstract class and when interface ? Pin
Ankit Rana16-Oct-16 18:06
Ankit Rana16-Oct-16 18:06 
AnswerRe: So when i use abstract class and when interface ? Pin
Rahul Rajat Singh17-Oct-16 19:51
professionalRahul Rajat Singh17-Oct-16 19:51 
GeneralRe: So when i use abstract class and when interface ? Pin
Bheesham Kumar Sharma21-Aug-18 1:07
Bheesham Kumar Sharma21-Aug-18 1:07 
PraiseGood start Pin
Groulien13-Oct-16 5:04
Groulien13-Oct-16 5:04 

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