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Posted 21 Feb 2004

QuickWhere: create complex forms for searching into databases

, 21 Feb 2004
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QuickWhere is component that helps you in the creation of complex forms for searching into databases.

Table of contents


You need to have good understanding of the Structured Query Language.

Throughout this article, I am using the term WHERE clause, which excludes the keyword WHERE itself.


You create applications that work with databases. How many times you had to create forms for searching the database for records that meet user defined criteria? If you have developed such forms, you probably know this could be painful. Painful to check if the user made an entry in each of all these numerous text boxes, combo-boxes, etc. Painful - when the new project manager decides that that tables and fields in the database do not obey his naming convention. And especially painful when the client needs a 'small' change in the searching capabilities of your application - he wants only two more text boxes on the form to be used as searching criteria.

What do you do if your form for search has already 5 fields? What about 20?

I have seen the code of one function that was 25 screens long and it returned only the WHERE clause of one SQL expression. This function looped over the controls on the searching form checking if there is a user entry. It collected values of the controls generating a string - the WHERE clause. This was a large clause - with about 45 fields and complex variations of ANDs and ORs. No one wanted to touch this procedure after it was initially created and tested. There were a number of such searching forms. (The design of the database is out of question here.)

QuickWhere component solves these painful problems by encapsulating this functionality. You just attach any number of controls to an instance of QuickWhere and it generates the correct WHERE clause, which you can use further for SELECTs, DELETEs, etc.

You can use QuickWhere to save the user entries as filter and later to use the saved filter to load searching criteria.

Using the code: simple example

You have completed the visual design of your searching form. How do you get the WHERE clause?

Very basic example how to use QuickWhere

Create an instance of QuickWhere and attach controls to it:

Dim QW As New QuickWhere()
With QW
    .Controls.Add("SearchField1", "Table1", TypeOfValues.StringType, _
                              WhereConditions.BeginsWith, TextBox1)
    .Controls.Add("SearchField2", TypeOfValues.DateType, DateTimePicker1)
End With

If TextBox1.Text is someStringValue and 22 May 1987 is the date selected in DateTimePicker1, the generated WHERE clause will be as follows:

([Table1].[SearchField1] LIKE "someStringValue*") 
                        AND ([SearchField2] = #22/05/87#)

The generated string does not contain the word WHERE to allow you using it in further more complex expressions.

You do not need to think how to wrap strings into apostrophes, the dates into pound signs, field names into square brackets, etc. QuickWhere takes care of all these.

Other examples

The second example gives you the idea how to attach various Win controls to QuickWhere. Each control represents a different type of field - string, date, numeric, boolean. This example also shows how to save the user input to a file as filter for further use as well as how to load such a filter.

How to use QuickWhere

Here is the code for attaching controls in the second example:

With QW
  .Add("Field1", WhereConditions.Contains, TypeOfValues.StringType, ListBox1)
  .Add("Field2", WhereConditions.GreaterOrEqual, _
             TypeOfValues.NumericType, ComboBox1)
  .Add("Field3", TypeOfValues.BooleanType, ComboBox2)
  .Add("Field4", "TableName1", TypeOfValues.DateType, _
             WhereConditions.Between, MonthCalendar1, MonthCalendar1)
  .Add("Field5", "TableName2", TypeOfValues.NumericType, _
             WhereConditions.NotBetween, TextBox1, TextBox2)
End With

The third example is more advanced. It shows you how to define complex WHERE clauses that include mixed ANDs and ORs. You can achieve this in various ways. This example presents two such ways. This third example shows you also how to apply operations over the values and how to use the IN clause.

The fourth example demonstrates how the general settings of QuickWhere reflect the generated WHERE clause. The general settings define the string and date markers, string delimiter etc. By changing this general settings, you can adjust the generated WHERE clause for the syntax of various databases. For example, the wild card char in SQL Server is the percent sign '%' and the wild card char in MS Access is the star symbol '*'. The default settings are for MS Access.

How it works

The implementation of the QuickWhere components is based on the WhereItem and WhereClause classes.

The basic classes

To understand the two basic classes, think of a WHERE clause as a tree with one or more branches. Each branch has one or more leaves. Each leaf is one WhereItem. The branches are presented by the WhereClause class. Any branch (WhereClause) by itself could have other sub-branches.

WHERE clause tree

Both classes implement the IWhereEntity interface. This interface provides GetSql method. When GetSql is invoked for the root WhereClause, it navigates down through all its branches and/or leaves (WhereItems) invoking their respective GetSql methods and collects their partial WHERE clauses. Finally, the root WhereClause combines the collected WHERE clauses to generates its output.

The WhereItem is the class that actually generates the primary WHERE clauses. It has two values - the properties Value and Value2. This allows you to use the BETWEEN condition in the WHERE clause. When condition is BETWEEN and one of the values is blank, the WhereItem converts the condition into proper GreaterOrEquial or LessOrEqual conditions. If the condition is IS NULL, both Value and Value2 properties are ignored.

The basic classes

You can use the basic classes WhereItem and WhereClause to create 'WHERE trees' with level of complexity you need:

Dim wiFirstName As New WhereItem()
Dim wiLastName As New WhereItem()
Dim wiDepartment As New WhereItem()
Dim wiSale As New WhereItem()
Dim wiSaleDate As New WhereItem()
Dim wcSearchByName As New WhereClause()
Dim wcSearchBySale As New WhereClause()
Dim wcFinalSearch As New WhereClause()

' The default WhereCondition is WhereConditions.EqualTo
' The default ValueType is TypeOfValues.StringType

With wiFirstName
    .FieldName = "FirstName"
    .TableName = "Personnel"
    .Value = "John"
End With

With wiLastName
    .FieldName = "LastName"
    .TableName = "Personnel"
    .Value = "son"
    .WhereCondition = WhereConditions.EndsWith
End With

With wiDepartment
    .FieldName = "DepartmentID"
    .TableName = "Departments"
    .Value = "9"
    .ValueType = TypeOfValues.NumericType
End With

' The default Operators is Operators.AndOperator

With wiSale
    .FieldName = "Sale"
    .Value = "15000"
    .TableName = "Sales"
    .ValueType = TypeOfValues.NumericType
    .WhereCondition = WhereConditions.GreaterOrEqual
End With

With wiSaleDate
    .FieldName = "SaleDate"
    .TableName = "Sales"
    .Value = "01/10/87"
    .Value2 = "25/10/87"
    .ValueType = TypeOfValues.DateType
    .WhereCondition = WhereConditions.Between
End With



The generated WHERE clause is:

(([Personnel].[FirstName] = "John") AND ([Personnel].[LastName] LIKE "*son") 
  AND ([Departments].[DepartmentID] = 9)) OR 
(([Sales].[Sale] >= 15000) AND ([Sales].[SaleDate] 
  BETWEEN #01/10/87# AND #25/10/87#))

The derived classes

The WhereControl class inherits from the WhereItem. You can attach zero, one, or two Windows controls to one WhereControl. Why zero or two? Just like with the WhereItem class - to allow for the WHERE condition to be IS NULL, BETWEEN and their negatives.

The derived classes

The QuickWhere is a collection of WhereControls. The QuickWhere class provides shared methods for saving to and loading from a file. This frees you from the obligation to write your own code for saving and loading the user input as predefined filters. This is useful when there are a number of search fields and the user wants to repeat the same search over the time without typing every time. The loading and saving are straightforward.

' Saving a filter to file QuickWhereFilter.xml
Dim QW As New QuickWhere()
With QW
    .Controls.Add("SearchField1", "Table1", TypeOfValues.StringType, _
                       WhereConditions.BeginsWith, TextBox1)
    .Controls.Add("SearchField2", TypeOfValues.DateType, DateTimePicker1)
    .SaveFilter(APP_PATH & "\QuickWhereFilter.xml", QW)
End With
' Loading a filter from file QuickWhereFilter.xml
Dim QW As New QuickWhere()
With QW
    ' it is necessary to set the form which controls belong to
    QW.ParentForm = Me
    QW.LoadFilter(APP_PATH & "\QuickWhereFilter.xml", Me)
End With

Note that WhereClause is a method of QuickWhere and it always returns a fresh new instance of the WhereClause class.

More features

Operations over values

It may happen that you will need to compare a field with the result of certain operation over a value. For example, the result of the operation over the value could be User Defined Function in SQL Server.

Dim QW As New QuickWhere()

indValueOperation = QW.Add("Field2", TextBox1)
QW(indValueOperation).ValueOperation = "Mid(@@,2,3)"

If the text of TextBox1 is someTextValue, the generated WHERE clause will be:

([Field2] = Mid("someTextValue",2,3))

The literal @@ is the value of the shared property Replacement of QuickWhere.

Attaching ListBox and ComboBox controls

When you attach ListBox or ComboBox controls to QuickWhere, you may need to use the index of the selected list item instead of the text of the control. To accomplish this, set the property SelectedValueIsUsed of the WhereControl to True.

Dim tmpIndex As Integer

tmpIndex = .Add("DepartmentID", TypeOfValues.NumericType, cmbDepartment)
.Item(tmpIndex).SelectedValueIsUsed = True

SelectedValueIsUsed property is ignored for controls other than ListBox, ComboBox and CheckedListBox.

Extending QuickWhere

As for now, the following Win controls could be attached to QuickWhere:

  • TextBox
  • ComboBox
  • ListBox
  • CheckedListBox
  • CheckBox
  • RadioButton
  • DateTimePicker
  • MonthCalendar
  • DomainUpDown
  • NumericUpDown

If you want to extend the list of supported controls, add the necessary code into both procedures GetControlText and SetControlText of WhereControl class.


One may ask "What about the validation of the user input in the search controls?" QuickWhere does not validate the user input. It was never meant to.

None of the presented sample forms implies for good visual design - they serve as illustrations only.

To Do

Saving and loading filters for ListBoxes not implemented for IN condition.


This article has no explicit license attached to it but may contain usage terms in the article text or the download files themselves. If in doubt please contact the author via the discussion board below.

A list of licenses authors might use can be found here


About the Author

Tester / Quality Assurance
Bulgaria Bulgaria
I am in software engineering for 20 years.

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Comments and Discussions

Questiontwo search button Pin
Member 1264023221-Jul-17 6:51
memberMember 1264023221-Jul-17 6:51 
QuestionCan this be easily converted to use ADO .NET disconnected model? Pin
corsairX24-Jun-07 23:45
membercorsairX24-Jun-07 23:45 
QuestionCommented Version? Currently rewriting QuickWhere for VBA ... Pin
minimalniemand21-Feb-07 6:12
memberminimalniemand21-Feb-07 6:12 
QuestionASP.Net Use?? Pin
NTulip10-Oct-06 3:01
memberNTulip10-Oct-06 3:01 
AnswerRe: ASP.Net Use?? Pin
DragD15-Oct-06 8:43
memberDragD15-Oct-06 8:43 
QuestionCrystal support Pin
Mahesh Sapre4-May-06 21:12
memberMahesh Sapre4-May-06 21:12 
QuestionHelp..Problem loading a saved filter into the form Pin
jairub3-Jan-06 12:53
memberjairub3-Jan-06 12:53 
GeneralWhere to use the generated Where Cluase Pin
helpxs21-Jun-05 7:54
memberhelpxs21-Jun-05 7:54 
GeneralC# version Pin
zhoulhh15-Mar-05 10:25
memberzhoulhh15-Mar-05 10:25 
GeneralRe: C# version Pin
Christian Graus15-Mar-05 10:44
memberChristian Graus15-Mar-05 10:44 
GeneralQuickwhere Pin
Keith Howell16-Jan-05 22:08
memberKeith Howell16-Jan-05 22:08 
GeneralRe: Quickwhere Pin
DragD19-Jan-05 6:59
memberDragD19-Jan-05 6:59 
GeneralRe: Quickwhere Pin
Keith Howell20-Jan-05 22:45
memberKeith Howell20-Jan-05 22:45 
GeneralRe: Quickwhere Pin
jmahoon15-Aug-05 6:40
memberjmahoon15-Aug-05 6:40 select * from ... where ... in (...) does not work in Pin 7:12 7:12 Pin
Hoangturom8-Apr-04 17:33
memberHoangturom8-Apr-04 17:33 
GeneralRe: Pin
Anonymous9-Jun-04 0:43
sussAnonymous9-Jun-04 0:43 
GeneralSQL injection attacks Pin
ThePhoenix23-Feb-04 22:21
memberThePhoenix23-Feb-04 22:21 
GeneralRe: SQL injection attacks Pin
DragD24-Feb-04 20:21
memberDragD24-Feb-04 20:21 
GeneralRe: SQL injection attacks Pin
computerguru923822-Mar-06 5:42
membercomputerguru923822-Mar-06 5:42 
GeneralRe: SQL Server vs. Oracle vs. Access Pin
DragD23-Feb-04 9:02
memberDragD23-Feb-04 9:02 
GeneralSQL Server vs. Oracle vs. Access Pin
ignatandrei23-Feb-04 2:18
memberignatandrei23-Feb-04 2:18 

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