Abstract: This document describes a tabu Search algorithm embedded
in a multiobjective framework capable of finding solutions to the zoning
problem by allowing the optimization of multiple objectives. The compactness meaning
the cluster given to the set of objects (territorial units for a zoning
problem) represents one of those objectives to be optimize, the other, homogeneity
meaning a balance in the distribution of several variables that each object
in the problem possesses and are selected as input for the algorithm, both objectives
are being minimize.
Zoning is a technique that belongs to the area of urban studies;
it appeared for the first time in the XIX century to separate the residential
areas from the industrials. The main idea with this technique, the most popular
in urbanization, is to produce a partition of homogeneous regions according to
some criteria. In our case each variable matches a criteria and each basic
geostatical area possesses a collection of values each representing the value
for some variable. These variables could be demographic, for instance people
who are older than twenty.
A basic geostatical area (BGA) is the manner in which will refer to
a basic or primitive region to be clustered. Any BGA consist of a pair (
position marks the location of the area in
space (usually two coordinates) and
variables_values represent a
list of values for every variable in the problem.
Tabu Search is a metaheuristic created by Fred Glover that
inherits from local search a popular optimization method. It’s common to see it
applied to combinatory optimization in problems such as TSP (Travelling
Salesman Problem) or QAP (Quadratic Assignment Problem). The use of metaheuristics
to solve the zoning problem, as well as the TSP is mandatory, because of their
NP Complete nature. In fact most of the time, we don’t find optimal solutions,
but approximations to these optimal solutions and sometimes if we are lucky, this
approximations might equaled some optimal solution.
Our tabu search is embedded in a multiobjective framework; this
implies that several objective functions are being optimized, all at once. Because
this is a multiobjective algorithm its main goal is to find non dominated
solutions. Any unknown definition we’ve seen so far will be covered in the next
II. Preliminary and Definitions
In this section we define theoretical aspects that we considered relevant
and necessary for understanding the contents of this paper.
Many optimization problems often involve multiple objective
functions such problems are known as Multiobjective Optimization Problem
(MOP). It can be stated as follows:
the feasible space, that is the set of all valid solutions, the solutions that
fulfill every constraint of the problem.
A vector is
said to dominated another vector, denoted
and only if .
Having multiple objectives denotes an important issue. The
improvement of one objective function could lead to the deterioration of
another. Thus a solution that will optimize every objective rarely exists, so
instead of looking for that solution a trade-off is searched. Pareto optimal
solutions represent this trade-off. A feasible solution is
said to be Pareto optimal iff
such that. The
set of all Pareto optimal solutions is known as the Pareto set and its
image the Pareto frontier. The algorithm proposed in this paper finds an
approximation to a set of Pareto optimal solutions forming a Pareto frontier.
The next section describes the Tabu Search with all of its components.
In this work we considered using two dissimilarity matrixes, one
for the coordinates of each region and another for the value of every variable
in each region.
III. tabu Search
Tabu Search (TS) is a metaheuristic presented by Glover which
uses adaptive memory and responsive exploration. Inherits from local search
(LS); probably the oldest and simplest metaheuristic method ever. It could be
said that Tabu Search is just a local search with some considerable
improvements or upgrades. Its core functionality is the same as LS; starts at a
given initial solution (usually generated randomly), it runs until a stopping rule
is reached and each iteration replaces the current solution by another which
improves the objective function, and is found in the neighborhood of the
current solution. The stopping rule for LS is reached when no neighbor of the
current solution improves the objective function meaning we have a local
optimum. This the main disadvantage for LS; it only finds local optimum, a
disadvantage Tabu Search does not shared as it includes mechanism for
diversification which prevents it from getting stuck into a local optimum.
Encoding and neighborhood
A solution is encoded as a pair (
an array of length , where
the number of BGAs, the
number of clusters and indicates
that object (region in our case) is
located at cluster. The
other array centers of length,
contains every center. The neighborhood of a given solution
is obtained by swapping all pairs of elements, where,
any center and any
element, so having as
a solution implies.
This is probably the most important characteristic of Tabu Search:
its capacity to remember the evolution of the search, accomplished through the
use of data structures. Tabu list, represents one of these data
structures, used to save pairs previously swapped, avoiding the possibility of cycling
around the same solutions, at least for some time (the length of the list must
be finite because memory is finite). The term intensification refers to
a mechanism that many metaheuristic implement to favor the exploitation of the
best solutions found so far, in this case the more promising regions are
explored more thoroughly, diversification on the other hand refers to
exploration of the search space, trying to visit unexplored solutions. In TS
these mechanisms are expressed in the medium-term memory and in the long-term
memory or freq memory. Intensification is managed by the medium-term memory,
storing the best solutions ever to be found. Diversification is handled by the
freq-memory showing how many times a given element has been included in a
solution as center.
Our algorithm uses freq-memory to favor objects (regions) with the
lowest frequency as centers in a diversification phase.
Solving the optimal zoning problem
Tabu Search is embedded into a multiobjective framework, so in
order to solve the problem we have to take into account several objective
functions. The first of these functions minimizes the intra-class distance
that is, the distance of every object to the center of its class or cluster.
In this formula represents
the Euclidean distance, represents
a center and the
set of elements that belong to a cluster with center.
The second objective considers the homogeneity of a
solution. Homogeneity means that elements belonging to the same cluster shared
some characteristics, in this case the value of some variables. When we
partition under the criteria of homogeneity the idea is to find a balance or equilibrium
in every cluster for each variable, so the actual function to be optimize is the
balance of homogeneity. To find the balance of a group with respect to
some variable, we count the number of elements having the desired value for
that variable and subtract that amount from the ideal value; which occurs when
all of the elements in the group have the desired value. The sum of every group
balance represents the balance of homogeneity to be minimized. For each
variable we’d like to homogeneity a balance of homogeneity function should be
added to the optimization model, so if we want to homogeneity three variables,
our model will have four objectives, the intra-class function and one balance
of homogeneity function for every variable.
the number of elements with the correct value on the variable being homogeneity
in group and
the ideal value.
Now that we stated the optimization model is time to described
TS’s strategy for finding non dominated solutions and building a Pareto
The strategy is divided into three
- A clustering of the
regions is found (we optimize only the intra-class objective).
- Once we have a
clustering its homogeneity is calculated.
- We check to see
whether this solution is nondominated, if it’s, we added using PSET (we’ll see
what this means shortly) otherwise we do nothing.
Seeing the strategy in these steps makes it look very simple. We
separate the intra-class optimization from the homogeneity optimization and
then verify the nondominated nature of the new solutions.
PSET (Pareto Set) is the component of the algorithm that
takes care of building the Pareto Set. Once a solution has been found PSET
will verify if this solution is "suitable" to be consider in the set of
solutions. Suitable means that is not duplicated (already in PSET) and
nondominated. If the solution happens to be nondominated then we might need to
remove some old solutions in PSET that no longer classify as Pareto optimal
because they are now dominated by the incoming solution. PSET has a tolerance
to 0 by default) as a parameter that could allow the inclusion of solutions in
PSET that are actually dominated, but very close to some nondominated solution
(their difference is less than or equal to ).
stopping rule, as the name suggests, defines the moment or iteration when the
algorithm should stop. In our case we’ve fixed a number of iterations and if we
reached that amount of iterations the algorithm will stop. However there’s
another condition for stopping the algorithm and that is when new nondominated
solutions stopped coming also during a fixed number of iterations.
This is a skeleton for
the TS algorithm:
- Randomly generate an
- Generate the
neighborhood of the current solution.
- If there is a solution
that improves the current solution then select it as the new current solution.
If not then enter into a diversification phase
- Get the new solutions
to PSET for verification.
- Go to 3 until a
stopping rule is reached.
In order to test the algorithm, a real-world problem has been used.
It’s illustrated as follows: the BGAs of the metropolitan area of Toluca Valley
are going to be clustered into five homogeneous groups that only include
elements whose variables have values in the ranges indicated below.
- Male Population under 6 years (X001).
- Male population between 6 and 11 years (X003).
- Male population between 15 and 17 (X007).
The homogeneity will be obtained in all three variables.
Tabu Search has run several iterations with this example getting
the following results:
Table 1 - Toluca Valley territorial design
Toluca Valley results for homogeneity and compactness,
We can appreciate from table 1 that the results were rather
satisfactory. The Pareto Frontier of the previous solutions (Pareto Set) is
represented in the next graphic.
The comparisons were made against a VNS (Variable Neighborhood
Search) algorithm associated with the same problem. As the following results
showed, Tabu Search is superior in a lot of aspects (homogeneity, compactness,
number of solutions, etc.)
Multiobjective problems arise in many real world problems; this
paper has focus on one of those problems namely the zoning problem. Tabu Search
proved to be an efficient method for solving this problem by giving some
interesting results in the experiments.
Among the different metaheuristics you might find today we
selected Tabu Search because of its extraordinary condition as a method of
intelligent search. We hope that future work on the zoning problem would result
in new methods, ideas and comparisons with our TS.
Bernábe Loranca B., Coello Coello
A.C., Osorio Lama M.,“A multiobjective approach for the heuristic optimization
of compactness and homogeneity in the optimal zoning”.
Beausoleil P. Ricardo, “Multiobjective
clustering using Tabu Search”, Institute of Cybernetics, Mathematics and
Talbi El-Ghazali, Metaheuristics:
from design to implementation. New Jersey: Wiley and Sons, 2009, ch. 2.