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Posted 11 Oct 2006

Yet Another RayTracer for .NET

, 29 Mar 2007
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This article is meant as an introduction to raytracing and explains the basic techniques to raytrace a scene.

Sample Image - RayTracer1.png


This RayTracer is a hobby project of mine. It has some very nice features (such as reflection and anti-aliasing) but it is not by far finished. This demo application is meant for anyone interested in raytracing, image generation and 3D rendering. It shows in a straightforward manner how raytracing is done. Although this raytracer only currently supports just a few shapes (plane, box and sphere). I was aiming at allowing developers to easily add their own objects/shapes to the scene, which I will explain later on in this article.

In this article I will shortly explain the basics of raytracing, explain commonly used terminology in raytracing and a few of the many raytracing effects that can be achieved to create a realistic scene. I will explain the algorithms and techniques I used and explain how this project can be extended with your own shapes, and possible your own effects.

Note that there are a number of raytracers out there (e.g. the well-known PovRay) and even open source raytracers that have more features than this one. I find that the problem with these raytracers is often that they are hard to understand, either because they are poorly documented, or the algorithms used are optimized for speed, which makes them practically unreadable - unless if you know what you are doing. One of the good aspects of this particular raytracer is that it is fully implemented in C# 2.0, and the code is well documented!

Sources and Demo

The sources project contains all sources of the RayTracer library and of the demo project. Feel free to use and adapt this code for your own purposes.

The demo project contains the RayTracer library and an example program that has several predefined scenes. You can select a scene under Tools\Scenes in the menu. From the settings menu you can turn on/off some of the effects. In the Edit menu select the Copy function to copy the raytraced image onto the clipboard.


I won't go too much into Raytracing background and history here. There is a lot to find about raytracing simply by looking on the web. Also I would like to point out "A raytracer for the Compact Framework" by gregs here on Code Project that explains some of the raytracing basics.

For now I will explain some common concepts used in ray tracing.

Basic raytracing definitions


Figure 1. An example raytracing Scene.

  • Camera is defined by its Position in the Scene (a 3D Vector), a point to LookAt (the purple arrow) which points at the center of the Viewport, and the tilt of the Camera (the blue arrow) called Top (it usually points strait up).
  • The Light is defined by its Position in the scene and the Color of the light denoted by the light bulb.
  • The Viewport is derived from the Camera settings and is defined by the LookAt point of the Camera and a fixed size of (-1,-1)-(1,1).
  • A Ray is defined by a starting Position, and a Direction in which the Ray is casted.
  • The Background is defined by a Color that will be displayed if it is not covered by any other shape.

In a typical raytracing setting a Ray is casted through each pixel in the Viewport into the Scene, in this example the black arrow. The Raytracer will try and find out if the Ray is intersecting with any object/shape in the scene. In this example it will intersect with the Sphere. Otherwise it will simply display the Background color. To determine the Color to display for the pixel, a number of techniques can be used and mixed. I call them shading effects.

Shading effects and Color

Because raytracing scenes require usually a high precision of calculations, the Color as we know it from the Drawing namespace has been replaced by our own RayTracer.Color definition. Here the R, G and B components are scaled down to a floating point number between 0 and 1. Also some of the common arithmetic operators have been overridden, so it will be easier to add, multiply and blend Colors.

The most basic technique is by simply displaying the intrinsic Color of the Sphere itself. This is called Ambient lighting. Ambient light is the so called background light that will light up all objects in the scene slightly (see figure 2a).

The color is also influenced by the amount of light emitted by surrounding other light sources. In this case the light bulb will light up the surface of the sphere depending on how well the surface is exposed to the light. The yellow arrow shows the direction in which the light is traced back to its source. Based on this direction, and the direction the surface of the sphere is facing, the amount of light is calculated. This is called Diffuse light. It gives a nice shading effect (see figure 2b).

Additionally the effects can be enhanced by introducing Highlights, if the surface is somewhat reflective and the rays from the light source are reflected on the shape's surface strait into the camera, a highlight appears: usually a very shiny and bright color.

Now for even more effects we can add Reflection and Refraction. In the case of Reflection, the Ray casted from the Camera is reflected on the surface of the sphere onto the green box denoted by the red arrow. This means the particular pixel the Ray travels through will light up with a somewhat greenish color also: the box is reflected into the sphere.

Refraction is somewhat more complicated. Refraction is the effect of a ray bending when traveling through a different Material. This applies to transparent objects/shapes. An example of this is a glass ball, where the light rays are bent when traveling through the ball.

Then another type of effect we can add to the scene is Shadows. Shadows do not add Color to a pixel, but instead reduce the amount of Color. To find out if an intersection with an object is in a shadow of another object, simply trace the path back to the light source (yellow arrow) and find out of any object is blocking it (does it intersect with any other object than the light source?). If it is blocked, simply reduce the amount of light by a factor.


Figure 2. Shading effects: a) Ambient, b) Diffuse, c) Highlights, d) Shadows and e) Reflection (notice the reflection on the floor also)

When rendering a scene containing these basic features (even with just ambient, diffuse, highlights and shadows), you would already get a quite amazingly raytraced image, even more so if you built the raytracer from scratch! But of course we are far from finished.


One important additional feature is texture. To make any scene look even more realistic you must be able to add textures to shapes. So how is it done? Basically texture can be compared to a piece of gift wrapper, which is wrapped around the object. There are two types of texture materials: a texture material based on a colormap or image (e.g. see the marble effect in the top image), and a texture material that is calculated (e.g. the chessboard effect).

Textures are flat and therefore require two coordinates to determine the color to display: often the u and v notation is used. The (u,v) coordinates are mapped onto (-1,-1)-(1,1) and from there on the color is either read from the colormap, or calculated respectively. The difficulty lies in calculating the (u,v) coordinates from an intersection point with the shape. Depending on the shape, the (u,v) coordinates need to be calculated in different ways, but this is up to that programmer to implement.


One other important feature to have in a Raytracer is the ability to cope with Anti-Aliasing. Anti-aliasing is a technique to soften huge color differences between neighbouring pixels, so it will look more soothing for the eye. Several techniques can be used to counter this aliasing effect. A quick but dirty technique is to simply apply a 'mean filter'. The pixel will get the mean color value of neighbouring pixels. This is implemented as the 'Quick' AntiAliasing method in this raytracer app. This results is a smoothed image, however the image may also appear a bit vague/blurry.

A much nicer way of anti-aliasing is using the 'Monte-carlo' method. The idea here is instead of casting a single ray into the scene through a pixel on the viewport, instead we cast multiple rays through a single pixel, scanning the neighbourhood and taking the average color of those. Although the method is slower, since we are now casting multiple rays for a single pixel, the accuracy is much better, resulting in much smoother but sharp Anti-Aliased images as shown in the figure below.


Figure 3. AntiAliasing methods: a) None, b) Mean filter, c) Monte Carlo sampling (using a Very High sampling rate of 64 rays for a single pixel)


Apart from cool shading effects more importantly it is to have well defined objects that make up your scene. Because the term 'object' is a bit overused, I prefer to use the term Shape when referring to an object in a Scene.

Have you ever wondered why in every raytraced image you always see a lot of spheres? Well apart from the nice shading effects on a sphere, more importantly, the intersection of a ray with a sphere can be calculated very fast. This is probably the most important aspect of a shape definition: how easy is it to calculate the intersection with the shape. Secondary to that, how easy is it to calculate its surface normal vector.

Calculating the intersection of a ray with arbitrary shapes turns out to be rather difficult. Instead different methods have been invented such as Voxel techniques or Marching cubes in order to determine the intersection points.

The most successful approach so far is to create a so called Mesh to describe the shape. A mesh is created by sampling the shape into small linked triangles. This process is also known as tessellation. The advantage of using triangles in this case, is because the intersection of a ray with a triangle is not hard to calculate and can be done rather efficiently as well. A disadvantage is that in order to create a smooth mesh, it is required to sample a whole lot of triangles. This means that the intersection calculation will also need to be executed more often, potentially killing the performance of the raytracer.

This Raytracer however has not been optimized much for performance, and therefore only supports a limited set of shapes: Plane, Sphere (of course) and a Box. A small side note I would like to make here, is that the algorithm used to calculate the intersection of a ray with the sphere is the fastest one I could find on the web.


Figure 4. Scene with Box and Sphere.

Using the code

In this topic I will explain the basics of how to use the RayTracer library, and how to extend it with your own additional shapes and materials.

Building a scene

Before we can actually start the raytracing process, we first need to setup a scene. Right now a scene can only be setup programmatically. Of course you are invited to change the code in such a way that the scene can be loaded for instance from a file.

So how does one setup a scene programmatically? As stated in the previous section, we need a Camera, some Background, some Shapes and possible one or more Lights to light the scene. Setting up a Shape has one catch though, we will need to supply a Material for the Shape. Currently we have three types of materials: Solid, Texture and Chessboard. Each material can have additional parameters to specify: gloss (also known as shininess, or how well is the shape highlighted), reflection (how reflective is the shape), transparency (how transparent is the shape), refraction (how well is the light bent when traveling through the shape, in case of transparent shapes).

To give an example see the code below. It will create a scene as shown in the first image on this page (Scene1 in the code).

// first of all, create a new scene object
Scene scene = new Scene();

// then set its Camera position in the scene
scene.Camera = new Camera(new Vector(0, 0, -15), new Vector(-.2, 0, 5), 
    new Vector(0, 1, 0));

// optionally set the scene's background color
scene.Background = new Background(new Color(0, 0, .5), 0.2);

// setup a solid reflecting sphere and add it to the list of shapes in 
// the scene
scene.Shapes.Add(new SphereShape(new Vector(-1.5, 0.5, 0), .5,
                 new SolidMaterial(new Color(0, .5, .5), 0.2, 0.0, 2.0)));

// now lets add a sphere with a marble texture            
// first load the marble texture from an image file
Texture marbleTexture = Texture.FromFile(path + @"\marble1.png");

// next setup the marble material, supplying the marble texture.
TextureMaterial marbleMaterial = new TextureMaterial(marbleTexture, 0.0, 
    0.0, 2, .5);

// now create the marble sphere and add it to the list of shapes in the scene
scene.Shapes.Add(new SphereShape(new Vector(0, 0, 0), 1, marbleMaterial));

// setup the chessboard floor
scene.Shapes.Add(new PlaneShape(new Vector(0.1, 0.9, -0.5).Normalize(), 1.2,
                 new ChessboardMaterial(new Color(1, 1, 1), 
                     new Color(0, 0, 0), 0.2, 0, 1, 0.7)));

//add two lights for better lighting effects (will cast shadows)
scene.Lights.Add(new Light(new Vector(5, 10, -1), new Color(0.8, 0.8, 0.8)));
scene.Lights.Add(new Light(new Vector(-3, 5, -15), new Color(0.8, 0.8, 0.8)));

Raytracing a scene

Now that we have created a scene, we can start RayTracing it! The following code shows how it is done:

// create a new RayTracer object. This object will be responsible for
// executing the actual raytracing process.
RayTracer.RayTracer tracer = new RayTracer.RayTracer();

// define the viewport to scan using a rectangle
Drawing.Rectangle rect = new Drawing.Rectangle(0, 0, 300, 300);

// setup a graphics device that raytracer can paint on. this can be the
// graphics device available in the Paint event (e.Graphics),
// or the create your own graphics device from a bitmap. In that case
// the raytraced image is rendered on the bitmap.

// in this example create a bitmap
Bitmap bitmap = new Drawing.Bitmap(rect.Width, rect.Height);

// create a new graphics device from the bitmap
Drawing.Graphics g = Drawing.Graphics.FromImage(bitmap);

// happy raytracing!
raytracer.RayTraceScene(g, rect, scene);

After executing the previous two blocks of code, you should be able to get the same nicely rendered image as on the top of this page.

Another available scene in RayTracer.Net is the following figure:


Figure 5: Another example.

Extending the RayTracer library: Shapes

Basically this library has two main extension points available: for the Shapes and for the Materials. Each Shape must implement the IShape interface. If you plan to add your own shape (e.g. a triangle, or mesh) you must implement the IShape interface. However I made it easy for you. You can derive your new shape class from the BaseShape class. This class implements the default tedious properties and methods of IShape for you.

However one method you must always implement, which is the Intersect method. This is probably the hardest to implement, but well, there you have it. The Intersect method expects a Ray and returns an IntersectionInfo object. This IntersectionInfo object contains all the raytracer needs to know about the intersection and how to render the color. If the Ray intersects with your shape you must set the following properties of the IntersectInfo object:

  • IsHit = true, this indicates that an intersection of the Ray with the Shape has occurred.
  • Distance, this denotes the distance of the starting point of the Ray to the point of intersection.
  • Position, this is the point of intersection with the object.
  • Normal, this is the normal vector in the direction the surface is facing at the point of intersection.
  • Color, this is the color at the point of intersection (the color may change depending if the shape has a texture material applied).

This is all the information the RayTracer needs to successfully render the shape.

Extending the RayTracer library: Materials

If you are not happy with the currently available materials, e.g. if you want to create a material that supports display of text, you can create your own material. Each material must implement the IMaterial interface. However again, to make life easy I have implemented a BaseMaterial class that implements most of the properties and methods for you. So all you have to do is create a new material class and derive it from BaseMaterial.

There is one property and one method you will need to implement for your own material: HasTexture and GetColor respectively.

  • HasTexture indicates whether the material supports some kind of texturing. If this is the case, correct (u,v) coordinates are to be supplied when calling the
    method. So most probably for your material you are to implement the property to always return True.
  • GetColor, this method is supplied with the (u,v) coordinates, so the GetColor method can determine what color to return based on these coordinates. Note that (u,v) will always be (0,0) if the HasTexture property == false. This is implemented for performance, calculating exact (u,v) coordinates requires additional calculations depending on the shape.
    Note that the supplied (u,v) coordinates are not restricted. So if you require the (u,v) coordinates to be mapped onto a texture for instance, you will need to write your own projection of these (u,v) coordinates onto the texture coordinates.

    The BaseMaterial has implemented a helper function for this called:
  • WrapUp, this function will modulate a floating point number onto the a value between [-1,1]. e.g. a value of -1.1 will be mapped to 0.9. but a value of -2.1 will be mapped to -0.1! (take a look at the implementation if it is not clear).

So when you have implemented HasTexture and GetColor attributes, you are ready to use the material in a scene.

Points of Interest

So far we have ambient, diffuse, highlights, shadows, reflection, refraction, textures. So, are we done yet? The answer to this question is both yes and no. This particular Raytracer example implementation will not go beyond these effects. (Un)fortunately there are many more possible effects to add realism to the scene, for example:

  • Soft shadows
  • Bumpmapping
  • Directed lighting
  • Light emitting objects
  • Particles
  • Photon mapping
  • Meshes
  • Perlin noise texture generators, e.g to create a marble or wood textures.
  • Water/Fire like textures/algorithms
  • Toon shading for a cartoon like effect
  • And a whole lot more that I forgot...

But the most important feature to consider is Performance. Speed is and has always been the biggest issue so far for raytracers. In order to render realistic scenes within a limited timeframe will require a number of optimizations:

  • Use standard render libraries, e.g. OpenGL or DirectX
  • Code optimizations
  • Caching and other memory optimizations
  • Algorithm optimizations
  • Use of KD-trees
  • Possible hardware optimizations, check out articles on real-time raytracing.

If you are interested on reading up more about this raytracing stuff it may be worth your while to check out the following very good reference sites of which I got most of my information to build this raytracer:


Version 1.0 of the RayTracer.Net was publishes on the 11th of October 2006.


This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)


About the Author

Herre Kuijpers
Architect Capgemini
Netherlands Netherlands
Currently Herre Kuijpers is employed at Capgemini Netherlands for over 10 years, where he developed skills with all kinds of technologies, methodologies and programming languages such as c#, ASP.Net, Silverlight, VC++, Javascript, SQL, UML, RUP, WCF. Currently he fulfills the role of software architect in various projects.

Herre Kuijpers is a very experienced software architect with deep knowledge of software design and development on the Microsoft .Net platform. He has a broad knowledge of Microsoft products and knows how these, in combination with custom software, can be optimally implemented in the often complex environment of the customer.

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Comments and Discussions

Praiseimplemented assimp loader and triangle Pin
nexustheru5-Mar-18 1:48
membernexustheru5-Mar-18 1:48 
QuestionDevloper Pin
A-Zarei26-Apr-12 13:21
memberA-Zarei26-Apr-12 13:21 
AnswerRe: Devloper Pin
Herre Kuijpers26-Apr-12 23:46
memberHerre Kuijpers26-Apr-12 23:46 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pin
sunlicbh6-Apr-12 1:35
membersunlicbh6-Apr-12 1:35 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pin
Paulo Zemek4-Apr-12 11:29
mvpPaulo Zemek4-Apr-12 11:29 
GeneralSmall questions Pin
Paul1 Ash4-Jan-11 21:02
memberPaul1 Ash4-Jan-11 21:02 
GeneralGreat job ! but maybe there is a problem with boxes... Pin
caguile8-Sep-10 3:33
membercaguile8-Sep-10 3:33 
GeneralRay Tracing in OpenGL Pin
frEAky gUrlsZ8-Feb-10 22:45
memberfrEAky gUrlsZ8-Feb-10 22:45 
General3ds or .x Pin
blaster_god23-Apr-09 15:07
memberblaster_god23-Apr-09 15:07 
GeneralRe: 3ds or .x Pin
Herre Kuijpers23-Apr-09 20:44
memberHerre Kuijpers23-Apr-09 20:44 
GeneralRe: 3ds or .x Pin
Martijn van Dorp18-Jan-10 4:52
memberMartijn van Dorp18-Jan-10 4:52 
GeneralFast program !!! Pin
fbenavm2-Jan-07 7:23
memberfbenavm2-Jan-07 7:23 
GeneralRe: Fast program !!! Pin
Herre Kuijpers6-Jan-07 0:05
memberHerre Kuijpers6-Jan-07 0:05 
GeneralRe: Fast program !!! Pin
davepermen29-Mar-07 22:30
memberdavepermen29-Mar-07 22:30 
GeneralRe: Fast program !!! [modified] Pin
Martijn van Dorp18-Jan-10 4:25
memberMartijn van Dorp18-Jan-10 4:25 
GeneralEXCELLENT! thx god... Pin
kfdksfgv20-Nov-06 23:07
memberkfdksfgv20-Nov-06 23:07 
Generalwell done Pin
firestorm3539-Nov-06 8:30
memberfirestorm3539-Nov-06 8:30 
GeneralVery nice Pin
mysorian17-Oct-06 2:21
membermysorian17-Oct-06 2:21 
GeneralRe: Very nice Pin
Herre Kuijpers17-Oct-06 4:21
memberHerre Kuijpers17-Oct-06 4:21 
GeneralJeb Well Done Pin
jcjj16-Oct-06 22:15
memberjcjj16-Oct-06 22:15 
GeneralRe: Jeb Well Done Pin
Herre Kuijpers17-Oct-06 4:20
memberHerre Kuijpers17-Oct-06 4:20 
GeneralRe: Jeb Well Done Pin
Dustin Metzgar17-Oct-06 4:33
memberDustin Metzgar17-Oct-06 4:33 
GeneralNice but ;) Pin
The Monz12-Oct-06 2:11
memberThe Monz12-Oct-06 2:11 
GeneralRe: Nice but ;) Pin
Herre Kuijpers13-Oct-06 6:10
memberHerre Kuijpers13-Oct-06 6:10 
GeneralRe: Nice but ;) Pin
System.Object26-Oct-06 5:49
memberSystem.Object26-Oct-06 5:49 

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