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# A C# Implementation of Douglas-Peucker Line Approximation Algorithm

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6 Jun 2007MIT 154.8K   3.5K   60   39
DP Line approximation algorithm is a well-known method to approximate 2D lines. It is quite fast, O(nlog_2(n)) for a n-points line and can drastically compress a data curve. Here, a fully OOP implementation is given.

## Introduction

I have found multiple implementations of the Douglas-Peucker algorithm but not in any .NET language, so I decided to port it over. Jonathan de Halleux has a wonderful explanation here.

## Background

I needed to reduce polygons size to display on a map based on zoom levels.

## Using the Code

The code included is complete and should run out of the box in Visual Studio 2005. If it does not, please let me know.

C#
```/// <summary>
/// Uses the Douglas Peucker algorithm to reduce the number of points.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="Points">The points.</param>
/// <param name="Tolerance">The tolerance.</param>
/// <returns></returns>
public static List<Point> DouglasPeuckerReduction
(List<Point> Points, Double Tolerance)
{
if (Points == null || Points.Count < 3)
return Points;

Int32 firstPoint = 0;
Int32 lastPoint = Points.Count - 1;
List<Int32> pointIndexsToKeep = new List<Int32>();

//Add the first and last index to the keepers

//The first and the last point cannot be the same
while (Points[firstPoint].Equals(Points[lastPoint]))
{
lastPoint--;
}

DouglasPeuckerReduction(Points, firstPoint, lastPoint,
Tolerance, ref pointIndexsToKeep);

List<Point> returnPoints = new List<Point>();
pointIndexsToKeep.Sort();
foreach (Int32 index in pointIndexsToKeep)
{
}

return returnPoints;
}

/// <summary>
/// Douglases the peucker reduction.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="points">The points.</param>
/// <param name="firstPoint">The first point.</param>
/// <param name="lastPoint">The last point.</param>
/// <param name="tolerance">The tolerance.</param>
/// <param name="pointIndexsToKeep">The point index to keep.</param>
private static void DouglasPeuckerReduction(List<Point>
points, Int32 firstPoint, Int32 lastPoint, Double tolerance,
ref List<Int32> pointIndexsToKeep)
{
Double maxDistance = 0;
Int32 indexFarthest = 0;

for (Int32 index = firstPoint; index < lastPoint; index++)
{
Double distance = PerpendicularDistance
(points[firstPoint], points[lastPoint], points[index]);
if (distance > maxDistance)
{
maxDistance = distance;
indexFarthest = index;
}
}

if (maxDistance > tolerance && indexFarthest != 0)
{
//Add the largest point that exceeds the tolerance

DouglasPeuckerReduction(points, firstPoint,
indexFarthest, tolerance, ref pointIndexsToKeep);
DouglasPeuckerReduction(points, indexFarthest,
lastPoint, tolerance, ref pointIndexsToKeep);
}
}

/// <summary>
/// The distance of a point from a line made from point1 and point2.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="pt1">The PT1.</param>
/// <param name="pt2">The PT2.</param>
/// <param name="p">The p.</param>
/// <returns></returns>
public static Double PerpendicularDistance
(Point Point1, Point Point2, Point Point)
{
//Area = |(1/2)(x1y2 + x2y3 + x3y1 - x2y1 - x3y2 - x1y3)|   *Area of triangle
//Base = v((x1-x2)²+(x1-x2)²)                               *Base of Triangle*
//Area = .5*Base*H                                          *Solve for height
//Height = Area/.5/Base

Double area = Math.Abs(.5 * (Point1.X * Point2.Y + Point2.X *
Point.Y + Point.X * Point1.Y - Point2.X * Point1.Y - Point.X *
Point2.Y - Point1.X * Point.Y));
Double bottom = Math.Sqrt(Math.Pow(Point1.X - Point2.X, 2) +
Math.Pow(Point1.Y - Point2.Y, 2));
Double height = area / bottom * 2;

return height;

//Another option
//Double A = Point.X - Point1.X;
//Double B = Point.Y - Point1.Y;
//Double C = Point2.X - Point1.X;
//Double D = Point2.Y - Point1.Y;

//Double dot = A * C + B * D;
//Double len_sq = C * C + D * D;
//Double param = dot / len_sq;

//Double xx, yy;

//if (param < 0)
//{
//    xx = Point1.X;
//    yy = Point1.Y;
//}
//else if (param > 1)
//{
//    xx = Point2.X;
//    yy = Point2.Y;
//}
//else
//{
//    xx = Point1.X + param * C;
//    yy = Point1.Y + param * D;
//}

//Double d = DistanceBetweenOn2DPlane(Point, new Point(xx, yy));
}```

## Points of Interest

The code is not overly complicated. It was fun to port this algorithm, since all I feel I do nowadays is hold business' hands to help them try and solve business problems that there is no consensus on.

## History

• Beta 1

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 First PrevNext
 More efficient version in Loyc.Math + Bug fix Qwertie22-Nov-23 10:03 Qwertie 22-Nov-23 10:03
 Addition to get rid of possible StackOverflow Exception Alexander Panfilenok12-Oct-23 5:08 Alexander Panfilenok 12-Oct-23 5:08
 Thanks! Keith Rule21-May-22 9:19 Keith Rule 21-May-22 9:19
 I'm trying to turn rotoscoped images into ila (laser vector files). I've found I need two open-source libraries to do this. CSPtrace and this one. The results are pretty good and this article help decimate the polygons into a number that a laser projector is likely able to project. So thanks for writing this. It saved me from having to code the algorithm from the Wikipedia article. Keith Keith Rule
 Re: rejecting recursion + distance calc acceleration TerrySpiderman21-Mar-17 3:05 TerrySpiderman 21-Mar-17 3:05
 to save stack memory with great amount of points and tolerance near zero i prefer to reject recursion adevder18-Feb-17 1:22 adevder 18-Feb-17 1:22
 Nice veen_rp18-Apr-16 19:41 veen_rp 18-Apr-16 19:41
 If (first = last) Bug! Giovani Luigi14-Dec-15 12:44 Giovani Luigi 14-Dec-15 12:44
 Re: If (first = last) Bug! Keith Rule21-May-22 13:40 Keith Rule 21-May-22 13:40
 DouglasPeuckerN() conversion? cbordeman11-Dec-15 17:42 cbordeman 11-Dec-15 17:42
 Re: DouglasPeuckerN() conversion? Mr Lorenz27-Apr-17 7:44 Mr Lorenz 27-Apr-17 7:44
 Useful Dineshkumar_MCA22-Apr-15 2:18 Dineshkumar_MCA 22-Apr-15 2:18
 BUG tolerance Member 1017584518-Feb-15 2:08 Member 10175845 18-Feb-15 2:08
 Thanks + pruned code Stoyan Haralampiev23-Oct-14 3:30 Stoyan Haralampiev 23-Oct-14 3:30
 Using this algorithm on data from database Saket Surya2-Jun-14 3:38 Saket Surya 2-Jun-14 3:38
 Point projected on the line but behind the segment? Bug? Sergiy Tkachuk25-Mar-14 14:31 Sergiy Tkachuk 25-Mar-14 14:31
 About Tolerance kamlesh Prajapati8-Jan-14 23:55 kamlesh Prajapati 8-Jan-14 23:55
 Why do you create your own Point? leiyangge3-Jan-14 22:37 leiyangge 3-Jan-14 22:37
 License Diego Catalano14-Dec-13 2:42 Diego Catalano 14-Dec-13 2:42
 1 bug, + 1 potential bug gyuri1023-Apr-12 23:45 gyuri10 23-Apr-12 23:45
 Re: 1 bug, + 1 potential bug tplokas26-Mar-13 14:46 tplokas 26-Mar-13 14:46
 Useful,Thanks! masy19112-Mar-12 23:43 masy191 12-Mar-12 23:43
 Great Job! Christopher Drake19-Dec-11 8:32 Christopher Drake 19-Dec-11 8:32
 how calculate an epsilon value unravel-the-sky23-May-11 6:52 unravel-the-sky 23-May-11 6:52
 Some Issues with your implementation MattMi15-Jul-10 11:57 MattMi 15-Jul-10 11:57
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