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Posted 13 Jul 2003

ComboBox WebControl

, 17 Sep 2003
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IE ComboBox WebControl


I've always wondered why Microsoft, or any else for that matter, has never provided a native HTML ComboBox element. After some poking around on the web, I decided to take matters into my own hands. I wanted a control that would be visually distinctive from the default HTML Select element and provide features such as auto complete and list validation. This article will discuss in some detail the View Link Behavior written in JavaScript and the C# code that make up the control.


Version 1.0 of this web control was based on the element behavior written by Jeremy Bettis at While Jeremy's behavior worked very well, it didn't include all the features I wanted in a combobox. This update is a total rewrite of that behavior and addresses the following feature requests and bug fixes.

  1. ListItem Value Retrieval - The combobox value is now mapped to the ListItem (Option) value attribute.
  2. Auto Validation - You can now specify the combobox to validate text entered by the user against the text in the ListItems.
  3. Text Field OnChange Event - The text field's OnChange event is bubbled up to the combobox control.
  4. Z-Indexing - The drop down arrow will no longer over lap other HTML elements.
  5. DataBinding support in Designer Mode.
  6. Visual distinction from HTML Select element.
  7. Positioning (Bug Fix) - Combobox now displays correctly when printed or absolutely positioned.
  8. First Item Selection (Bug Fix) - You can now select the first item in the drop down.

Using the ComboBox Control

Note: This control was developed and tested against IE 6.0. However it is likely IE 5.5 compatible, but will not work with older versions or any non-Microsoft browser.

For all the newbie's out there, read and follow the instructions carefully! I will not respond to any inquiries that are answered in this section.

First, we have to copy the runtime files, consisting of the and images directory, to their default virtual directory, /$wwwroot/webctrl_client/progstudios/1_1/. You can specify a different location by adding a new element to the appSettings collection in the web.config.

  <add key="PROGWEBCONTORLS_COMMONFILEPATH" value="MyVirtualPath" />

The binary and project files included in the source are based on the .NET Framework 1.1 and Visual Studio 2003. They are not compatible with 1.0 or VS.NET 2002, so you will have to recompile the assembly on your own. To recompile the project in VS.NET 2002, follow the steps outlined below:

  1. Create a new C# "Web Control Library" project; call it "ProgStudios.WebControls" or whatever you want.
  2. Right click on the Project and select Properties.
  3. Make sure that "Assembly Name" and "Default Namespace" properties are set to "ProgStudios.WebControls".
  4. Drag and drop the files from the ZIP file onto the project.
  5. Right click the bitmap image, and in the property window, set the "Build Action" property to "Embedded Resource".
  6. Right click on the Solution and select Properties. Under "Control Properties/Configuration", make sure the configuration is set to "Release" and press OK.
  7. Right click on the Project and select "Build", or press "ctrl+shift+b" to build the project.
  8. The output DLL will be located in the bin/release directory.
  9. Add the control to your tool box.
    1. Right click on the tab where you want the control placed and select "Add/Remove Items".
    2. Click "Browse" and locate the DLL.
  10. Voila!

To add the assembly to your web project, right click on "References" in the Solution Explorer and locate the DLL by clicking "Browse", or add the project under the "Projects" tab. If you are not using Visual Studio, make sure that you copy the DLL to the bin directory. Once you have the control installed, you can drag and drop the control to the web page in Design mode. The following is the generated HTML code.

The first line registers the assembly and associates the "cc1" tag prefix to the assembly namespace. The "cc1:combobox" represents the actual control. The child element asp:ListItem can be swapped with the traditional <option> tag.

<%@ Register TagPrefix="cc1" Namespace="ProgStudios.WebControls"

  Assembly="ProgStudios.WebControls" %>
    <cc1:combobox id="ComboBox1" runat="server">

You can manually add new items, or like in the demo project, bind it to a DataView. Like the HtmlSelect and DropDown controls, the ComboBox can be bound to any instance that implements IListSource, IList, or IEnumerable.

  <cc1:ComboBox id="ComboBox1" runat="server" DataSource="<%# dataView1 %>" 

    DataValueField="ProductID" DataTextField="ProductName">
  protected DataView dataView1;
  protected void Page_Load(object sender, System.EventArgs e) {
    if (!this.IsPostBack) {
      DataSet ds = new DataSet();
      FileStream fs = new FileStream(
      StreamReader reader = new StreamReader(fs);
      dataView1 = new DataView(ds.Tables[0]);
<prog:combobox id="ComboBox1" runat="server"/>

The control also exposes a server side event, ServerChange. You can attach to the event by hooking-up the OnServerChange event handler. This gets fired if the value is changed on post back. You can also specify the control to automatically post back by setting the AutoPostBack attribute to true.

<script runat="server" language="c#">
  void ComboBox1_OnServerChange(object sender, System.EventArgs e) {
    Msg.InnerText = "ServerChange Event Fired: Value=" + ComboBox1.Value;

<prog:combobox id="ComboBox1" runat="server" 

AutoPostBack="true" OnServerChange="ComboBox1_OnServerChange">

The AutoValidate property is used to ensure that the text typed by the user matches that contained in the list items collection. If it does not match, the selectedIndex is set to -1 and the value is set to an empty string. You can alert an error message once the ComboBox loses focus, by setting the ErrorMessage property.

Inside the C# Web Control Code

In order to get some free functionality, I decided to inherit from the WebControl class. This decision was easy since the base class has an AttributesCollection class member. This is important since all HTML elements support expando properties, which are basically arbitrary attributes that you can tack onto an element and have it be available through client side script. Any attribute not recognized by the server control will be appended to the attribute collection and rendered to the root element on the client.

The rest of the code is pretty straightforward. Besides the exposing of the corresponding server side properties, methods, and events that are available on the web client, I had to implement certain methods to handle all the plumbing. The control must participate in post backs to handle state, therefore, the IPostBackDataHandler.RaisePostDataChangedEvent and IPostBackDataHandler.LoadPostData interface methods are implemented to load the posted value.

public virtual void RaisePostDataChangedEvent() {
public virtual bool LoadPostData(string postDataKey, 
  NameValueCollection postCollection) {
  string sValue = this.Value;
  string sPostedValue = postCollection.GetValues(postDataKey)[0];
  if (!sValue.Equals(sPostedValue)) {
    this.Value = sPostedValue;
    return true; 
  return false;

I also had to override the SaveViewState and LoadViewState methods in order to manage ListItems on post backs.

protected override void LoadViewState(object savedState) {
  if (savedState != null) {
    object[] State = (object[])savedState;
    this.Value = (string) State[0];
    ArrayList ItemsList = (ArrayList) State[1];
    foreach (object itemText in ItemsList) {
      if (this.Items.FindByText((string)itemText)==null) {
        ListItem item = new ListItem();
        item.Text = (string) itemText;
protected override object SaveViewState() {
  ArrayList ItemsList = new ArrayList();
  foreach (ListItem item in this.Items) {
  object[] savedState = new object[2];
  savedState[0] = this.Value;
  savedState[1] = ItemsList;
  return savedState;

Writing the control builder class was also a very straightforward task. I inherited from the ControlBuilder and overrode the GetChildControlType method to only allow ListItem and Option child elements.

public override Type GetChildControlType(string tagName, 
  System.Collections.IDictionary attribs) {
  string szTagName = tagName.ToLower();
  int colon = szTagName.IndexOf(':');
  if ((colon >= 0) && (colon < (szTagName.Length + 1))) {
    // Separate the tagname from the namespace
    szTagName = szTagName.Substring(colon + 1, 
        szTagName.Length - colon - 1);
  if (String.Compare(szTagName, "option", true, 
       System.Globalization.CultureInfo.InvariantCulture) == 0 ||
       String.Compare(szTagName, "listitem", true, 
       System.Globalization.CultureInfo.InvariantCulture) == 0 ) {
    return typeof(System.Web.UI.WebControls.ListItem); 
  // No Type was found, throw an exception
  throw new Exception(String.Format(
    "Invalid child with tagname \"{0}\"", tagName));

The ComboBox Link View Behavior

OK, now we get into the most interesting part of the article. This section will, to some degree, de-mystify what my friend refers as the black art of web development, behavior programming. The current version of the ComboBox employs the ViewLink feature found in element behaviors, which allows you to encapsulate document fragments in your HTML component. A ViewLink element behavior, referred as master element, also maintains its own document tree. So, this means we can now create elements and style sheet properties using HTML, and manipulate these objects through script in our HTC file with out having to worry about name collisions.

For instance, the ComboBox defines a text input field with the ID "textField". If we were using a traditional element behavior, we'd have to define the element by using the document.createElement method and then use element.appendChild method to add it to the primary document tree. However, if we use the View Link feature, we can just use HTML to create and define our element. In addition, what happens if we wanted to use more than one ComboBox on a page or another element behavior that defines a completely different element with the same ID? We'd have a name collision.

  <STYLE TYPE="text/css">
    .clsTextField {border:none;margin-right:1px;margin-left:1px;}
    .clsTextFieldCell {background-color:white;border:ridge 1px buttonface;}
    .clsTextFieldCell_hover {background-color:white;border:solid 1px navy;}
    <table unselectable="on" ID="tblCombobox" 

           cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="0">
        <td unselectable="on" class="clsTextFieldCell" 

          <input class="clsTextField" id="textField" 

             type="text" NAME="textField">
        <td id="dropDownArrowCell" class="clsDropDownCell">
           <img width=5 height=3 

          id="imgArrow" src="images/down_arrow.gif" vspace="2" 


You'll also notice that I define CSS style classes in the HTC file. The className properties are swapped in the mouseover, mouseout, and click event handlers. So if you want to modify the look and feel, you'll have to do it here.

Figure 1

The master element's dimensions are defined by its content fragments. Dynamically created elements, regardless if it's absolutely positioned, affect and are subject to the confines of these dimensions. In the case with the ComboBox, we create a drop down consisting of DIV element containing an HTML table representing the ListItems collection. Each table cell catches window events such as mouseout, mouseover, and click. When added to the master element's document tree, the new drop down's dimensions are considerably larger than the initial size. As you can see in the figure 1, the ComboBox is inside an HTML table, and when clicked, the drop down expands the height of the table cell. The right edge of the drop down is also clipped, as the scroll bar is not shown.

As you can see, this isn't going to work. We need to append in the newly created table the primary document tree instead. Doing so allows us to absolutely position and not alter the master element's dimensions. This also brings up another interesting point, the textField is contained in the master element. When the primary document's form is posted, the textField data is not sent in the request. If you iterate through the Forms collection you will not find textField. So in order for the ComboBox to participate in post backs, we have to create a hidden field and append it to the master element's parent form.

Finally, I'd like to bring up the options collection. Since the ComboBox's drop down is essentially an HTML table and all the state logic is encapsulated in the ComboBox itself, we really don't need to create a traditional HTML Select element for rendering purposes. Although ComboBox is written to work in a server environment, there will be cases where you may want to dynamically append or delete list items from the client. Therefore, we must expose the collection as a public property. We have the option of creating our own collection class and introducing a brand new API, or we can just create an in memory select element and map its options collection to the public property. I chose the latter. Since the select element is in memory and not rendered on the browser, I exposed the repaint() method that will explicitly redraw the drop down. This method needs to be called after you add or delete items from the client.

Known Issues

  1. Inline alignment - The ComboBox does not properly align with adjacent text. Place the control inside a table cell to get around this problem.


This article has no explicit license attached to it but may contain usage terms in the article text or the download files themselves. If in doubt please contact the author via the discussion board below.

A list of licenses authors might use can be found here


About the Author

khoi pham
Web Developer
United States United States
No Biography provided

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Comments and Discussions

QuestionIE8+ Update? Pin
Jamie Mellway18-May-17 13:51
memberJamie Mellway18-May-17 13:51 
QuestionSource code for version 1.0 of the progstudios combo box Pin
sunil.sunny21-May-12 7:38
membersunil.sunny21-May-12 7:38 
Questiono used with shortcut code Pin
Member 833102018-Oct-11 20:07
memberMember 833102018-Oct-11 20:07 
GeneralMy vote of 2 Pin
memberNIRMAL UPADHYAY11-Oct-11 0:30 
GeneralComboBox Items are displayed in a line Pin
Anamika_k29-May-10 9:40
memberAnamika_k29-May-10 9:40 
Questionthe Items in My ComboBox was displayed in a line ,not like a dropdownlist,why??? Pin
zhaoxiaonan1-Aug-09 16:29
memberzhaoxiaonan1-Aug-09 16:29 
AnswerRe: the Items in My ComboBox was displayed in a line ,not like a dropdownlist,why??? Pin
Sandeep Mewara27-Mar-10 9:58
mentorSandeep Mewara27-Mar-10 9:58 
AnswerRe: the Items in My ComboBox was displayed in a line ,not like a dropdownlist,why??? Pin
Sajeeva Jami27-Jun-12 18:21
memberSajeeva Jami27-Jun-12 18:21 
GeneralMy vote of 2 Pin
aozhao16-Jul-09 23:06
memberaozhao16-Jul-09 23:06 
GeneralMy vote of 2 Pin
aaberg11-Feb-09 12:03
memberaaberg11-Feb-09 12:03 
GeneralRe: My vote of 2 Pin
Sandeep Mewara27-Mar-10 5:18
mentorSandeep Mewara27-Mar-10 5:18 
QuestionHow disable this ComboBox using Javascript Pin
Rocks C#17-Oct-08 3:17
memberRocks C#17-Oct-08 3:17 
QuestionNot working with Firefox Pin
scalf27-Jun-08 2:05
memberscalf27-Jun-08 2:05 
AnswerRe: Not working with Firefox Pin
nickyt30-Jul-08 5:02
membernickyt30-Jul-08 5:02 
QuestionPerformance Issue Pin
cdoloriert22-May-08 3:02
membercdoloriert22-May-08 3:02 
QuestionI neeeeed help plzzz Pin
Moh.Shafe3i29-Mar-08 23:00
memberMoh.Shafe3i29-Mar-08 23:00 
QuestionFireFox and other browsers Pin
popsickle2-Feb-08 3:04
memberpopsickle2-Feb-08 3:04 
Questionpositioning the listbox Pin
avadhuta12-Sep-07 8:15
memberavadhuta12-Sep-07 8:15 
AnswerRe: positioning the listbox Pin
khan SharePoint Developer26-Sep-07 2:32
memberkhan SharePoint Developer26-Sep-07 2:32 
QuestionOnChange javascript event Pin
sivakumar.samy31-Jul-07 9:18
membersivakumar.samy31-Jul-07 9:18 
QuestionProblem using Combobox and where is the version 1.2 ? Pin
e_garciag28-Jul-07 15:17
membere_garciag28-Jul-07 15:17 
GeneralVirus!!! Pin
osmansonmez19-Jul-07 21:54
memberosmansonmez19-Jul-07 21:54 
QuestionInvalid child for tagname items Pin
janette thurgood9-Jul-07 5:01
memberjanette thurgood9-Jul-07 5:01 
QuestionHow to focus on the first item when control loads Pin
VishnuAccenture29-Jun-07 1:55
memberVishnuAccenture29-Jun-07 1:55 
GeneralWidth of control Pin
Glenn221-May-07 6:28
memberGlenn221-May-07 6:28 

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