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Posted 26 Nov 2012

LINQ and dictionaries

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Convenience methods for creating dictionaries with LINQ


LINQ is a powerful technique for operating on collections in .NET, but when employed to dictionaries the behavior is not entirely intuitive. I have implemented a number of C# extension methods intended to provide a more convenient and intuitive experience when using LINQ to perform standard operations on dictionaries. 

This article was previously published on my blog,

LINQ and dictionaries  

LINQ is a very powerful technique for operating on collections of objects in .NET. If you for example have a collection of integers, it is a simple task to pick the even numbers from the collection using LINQ:
int[] ints = new[] { 1, 3, 6, 8, 9, 10 };
IEnumerable<int> evens = ints.Where(i => i % 2 == 0); 

Similarly for dictionaries:

Dictionary<int, int> intDict = new Dictionary<int, int> { { 2, 3 }, { 3, 5 }, { 6, 7}};
Dictionary<int, int> evenKeys = intDict.Where(kv => kv.Key % 2 == 0); 

What? Compilation error?!?

In fact, the intDict.Where() statement is not entirely correct. From the LINQ point of view, Dictionary<,> and other classes implementing the IDictionary<TKey, TValue> interface are actually regarded as implementations of the IEnumerable<KeyValuePair<TKey, TValue>> interface. Thus (ignoring for a moment that we could also have used the var keyword), the correct evenKeys assignment should read:

IEnumerable<KeyValuePair<int, int>> evenKeys = intMap.Where(kv => kv.Key % 2 == 0); 

Now, my guess is that in the normal case one would rather have the above assignment to return a Dictionary. Fortunately, LINQ also provides a number of ToDictionary method overloads. So for the evenKeys assignment to return a Dictionary we simply type:

Dictionary<int, int> evenKeys = intMap.Where(kv => kv.Key % 2 == 0).ToDictionary();  

What?! Compilation error again?

Yes, because the ToDictionary method also operates on IEnumerable<T> objects. You need to tell the compiler how you want to design your Dictionary based on this arbitrary type T. For correctness, our evenKeys assignment has to be expressed as follows:

Dictionary<int, int> evenKeys = 
    intMap.Where(kv => kv.Key % 2 == 0).ToDictionary(kv => kv.Key, kv => kv.Value);

For dictionaries, this explicitness may appear quite counter-intuitive, and there are several forum questions on the Internet indicating that this API design indeed has caused confusion (here, here and here for example).

After giving this issue some thought, I believe I have come up with an approach to bypass this hurdle of confusion. I have implemented the following extension method in a static utility class: 

public static Dictionary<TKey, TValue> ToDictionary<TKey, TValue>(
    this IEnumerable<KeyValuePair<TKey, TValue>> source)
    return source.ToDictionary(kv => kv.Key, kv => kv.Value);

This overload of ToDictionary takes any object that implements the IEnumerable<KeyValuePair<TKey, TValue>> interface, which is a common return type when invoking LINQ operations on dictionaries, and returns a Dictionary<TKey, TValue> object using the same keys and values as the dictionary in the argument list. With this extension method defined, I now actually can enter: 

Dictionary<int, int> evenKeys = intMap.Where(kv => kv.Key % 2 == 0).ToDictionary();

without getting the annoying compilation error. 

Now this is all good and well, but I then decided to take the issue even one step further. Wouldn't it be good if for example the Where() extension method when operating on a Dictionary by default returned a Dictionary with the same keys and values?

Well, it can of course be done! And here is the solution:

public static Dictionary<TKey, TValue> Where<TKey, TValue>(
    this IDictionary<TKey, TValue> source, Func<KeyValuePair<TKey, TValue>, bool> predicate)
    return Enumerable.Where(source, predicate).ToDictionary(kv => kv.Key, kv => kv.Value);
When this method is defined, it effectively hides the general Where(IEnumerable<T>, Func<>) extension method when the IEnumerable<T> object also implements the IDictionary<TKey, TValue> interface. Having the above Where() extension method defined now even makes it possible for us to apply our first dictionary LINQ attempt without compilation error:
Dictionary<int, int> evenKeys = intMap.Where(kv => kv.Key % 2 == 0); 

Unfortunately, this method will always return a Dictionary object, regardless of whether intDict is a SortedDictionary or SortedList or another object implementing the IDictionary<TKey, TValue> interface. At this point, I have no viable solution for returning the same dictionary type that was used as input to the specialized Where method. The quest for a solution will continue nonetheless.

I have also collected a few more similar LINQ extension method overloads in a Github project that I have chosen to call ... dictionarylinq!

In this project you may find dictionary overloads for the Except, Intersect and Union extension methods. Due to their signatures, for these methods it has actually been possible to implement a specialized overload that returns the true input dictionary type, together with a designated overload with better performance for the Dictionary<TKey, TValue> class.

Included are also method overloads for the Select method when the return type of the Func<TSource, TResult> object is a KeyValuePair<TKey, TValue>. It would be relatively easy to add more method overloads to dictionarylinq, but for now this is what there is.

When the extension methods from the dictionarylinq utility class are included in your application, these methods will effectively hide the general extension methods in the System.Linq.Enumerable class. If you do want to fall back on the general methods in a certain scenario, either make an explicit cast to the IEnumerable<> interface:

IEnumerable<KeyValuePair<int, int>> output = 
    ((IEnumerable<KeyValuePair<int, int>>)input).Where(kv => kv.Key > 3); 

or invoke the static method explicitly:

IEnumerable<KeyValuePair<int, int>> output = Enumerable.Where(input, kv => kv.Key > 3); 

Please also note that the dictionarylinq class library in the Visual Studio 2010 solution is a Portable Class Library. This means that the library uses the "least common denominator" of .NET Framework 4, Silverlight and Windows Phone 7 base class libraries, and can easily be configured to support Windows Store applications. The library can be built once and consumed by all .NET technologies without re-building. In Visual Studio 2012 Portable Class Libraries are supported by default. If you are running Visual Studio 2010 and have not installed the Portable Library Tools, simply create a new designated class library project and include the source code from the dictionarylinq class library, or include the source code directly in your own class library or application.

I hope that this effort can be useful also to others than myself. For questions and comments on this work, please do not hesitate to comment below. If you are a Github user, please feel free to report code issues via the project's Issues tab.

Good luck with Dictionary and LINQ! 


Nov 26, 2012: Initial version, adapted from


This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Eclipse Public License 1.0


About the Author

Anders Gustafsson, Cureos
CEO Cureos AB
Sweden Sweden
I am the owner of Cureos AB, a software development and consulting company located in Uppsala, Sweden. The company's main focus is in developing software for dose-response analysis and optimization of large patient treatment materials, primarily using the .NET framework. In my Ph.D. thesis I outlined a general optimization framework for radiation therapy, and I have developed numerous tools for radiotherapy optimization and dose-response modeling that have been integrated into different treatment planning systems.

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Comments and Discussions

QuestionThanks!! Pin
Shanan Winters15-Nov-13 7:06
memberShanan Winters15-Nov-13 7:06 
AnswerRe: Thanks!! Pin
Anders Gustafsson, Cureos6-Dec-13 1:54
memberAnders Gustafsson, Cureos6-Dec-13 1:54 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pin
M.Vo.2-Aug-13 4:00
memberM.Vo.2-Aug-13 4:00 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pin
J Tracy Rooks13-Dec-12 11:17
memberJ Tracy Rooks13-Dec-12 11:17 
GeneralRe: My vote of 5 Pin
Anders Gustafsson, Cureos13-Dec-12 11:19
memberAnders Gustafsson, Cureos13-Dec-12 11:19 
QuestionRecommendation Pin
kevininstructor4-Dec-12 11:15
memberkevininstructor4-Dec-12 11:15 
AnswerRe: Recommendation Pin
Anders Gustafsson, Cureos4-Dec-12 11:21
memberAnders Gustafsson, Cureos4-Dec-12 11:21 
GeneralI love it... Pin
Paw Jershauge26-Nov-12 23:10
memberPaw Jershauge26-Nov-12 23:10 
GeneralRe: I love it... Pin
Anders Gustafsson, Cureos AB26-Nov-12 23:26
memberAnders Gustafsson, Cureos AB26-Nov-12 23:26 
SuggestionIDictionary Pin
Andrew Rissing26-Nov-12 12:37
memberAndrew Rissing26-Nov-12 12:37 
GeneralRe: IDictionary Pin
Anders Gustafsson, Cureos AB26-Nov-12 21:58
memberAnders Gustafsson, Cureos AB26-Nov-12 21:58 
GeneralRe: IDictionary Pin
Andrew Rissing27-Nov-12 5:13
memberAndrew Rissing27-Nov-12 5:13 
GeneralRe: IDictionary Pin
Anders Gustafsson, Cureos AB27-Nov-12 20:45
memberAnders Gustafsson, Cureos AB27-Nov-12 20:45 

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