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Building a Database Application in Blazor - Part 2 - Services - Building the CRUD Data Layers

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7 Apr 2021CPOL8 min read
How to build the CRUD Data Layers in a Blazor Database Application
The second article in a series of articles detailing a structured approach to building Blazor Database Applications, examines the CRUD Data Layers.

This the second article in a series on Building Blazor Database Applications.   It describes how to bouilerplate the data and business logic layers into generic library code that makes deploying application specific data services simple.   It is a total rewrite from earlier releases.

The articles in the series are:

  1. Project Structure and Framework.
  2. Services - Building the CRUD Data Layers.
  3. View Components - CRUD Edit and View Operations in the UI.
  4. UI Components - Building HTML/CSS Controls.
  5. View Components - CRUD List Operations in the UI.

Repository and Database

The repository has moved to CEC.Database Repository.   You can use it as a template for developing your own applications.   Previous repositories are obselete and will be removed.

There's a SQL script in /SQL in the repository for building the database.   The application can use either a real SQL database or an in-memory SQLite database.

You can see the Server and WASM versions of the project running here on the same site.

Objective

Let's look at our goal before diving into specifics: build library code so declaring a standard UI controller service is as simple as this:

C#
public class WeatherForecastControllerService : FactoryControllerService<WeatherForecast>
{
    public WeatherForecastControllerService(IFactoryDataService factoryDataService) : base(factoryDataService) { }
}

And declaring a database DbContext that looks like:

C#
public class LocalWeatherDbContext : DbContext
{
    public LocalWeatherDbContext(DbContextOptions<LocalWeatherDbContext> options)
        : base(options)
    {}

    // A DbSet per database entity
    public DbSet<WeatherForecast> WeatherForecast { get; set; }

}

Our process for adding a new database entity is:

  1. Add the necessary table to the database.
  2. Define a Dataclass.
  3. Define a DbSet in the DbContext.
  4. Define a public class nnnnnnControllerService Service and register it with the Services container.

There will be complications with certain entities, but that doesn't invalidate the approach - 80%+ of the code in the library.

Services

Blazor is built on DI [Dependency Injection] and IOC [Inversion of Control] principles.   If you're unfamiliar with these concepts, do a little backgound reading before diving into Blazor.   It'll save you time in the long run!

Blazor Singleton and Transient services are relatively straight forward.   You can read more about them in the Microsoft Documentation.   Scoped are a little more complicated.

  1. A scoped service object exists for the lifetime of a client application session - note client and not server.   Any application resets, such as F5 or navigation away from the application, resets all scoped services.   A duplicated tab in a browser creates a new application, and a new set of scoped services.
  2. A scoped service can be further scoped to an single object in code.   The OwningComponentBase component class has functionality to restrict the life of a scoped service to the lifetime of the component.

Services is the Blazor IOC [Inversion of Control] container.  Service instances are declared:

  1. In Blazor Server in Startup.cs in ConfigureServices
  2. In Blazor WASM in Program.cs.

The solution uses a Service Collection extension methods such as AddApplicationServices to keep all the application specific services under one roof.

C#
// Blazor.Database.Web/startup.cs
public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
    services.AddRazorPages();
    services.AddServerSideBlazor();
    // the local application Services defined in ServiceCollectionExtensions.cs
    // services.AddApplicationServices(this.Configuration);
    services.AddInMemoryApplicationServices(this.Configuration);
}

Extensions are declared as a static extension methods in a static class.   The two methods are shown below.

C#
//Blazor.Database.Web/Extensions/ServiceCollectionExtensions.cs
public static class ServiceCollectionExtensions
{
    public static IServiceCollection AddApplicationServices(this IServiceCollection services, IConfiguration configuration)
    {
        // Local DB Setup
        var dbContext = configuration.GetValue<string>("Configuration:DBContext");
        services.AddDbContextFactory<LocalWeatherDbContext>(options => options.UseSqlServer(dbContext), ServiceLifetime.Singleton);
        services.AddSingleton<IFactoryDataService, LocalDatabaseDataService>();
        services.AddScoped<WeatherForecastControllerService>();
        return services;
    }

    public static IServiceCollection AddInMemoryApplicationServices(this IServiceCollection services, IConfiguration configuration)
    {
        // In Memory DB Setup
        var memdbContext = "Data Source=:memory:";
        services.AddDbContextFactory<InMemoryWeatherDbContext>(options => options.UseSqlite(memdbContext), ServiceLifetime.Singleton);
        services.AddSingleton<IFactoryDataService, TestDatabaseDataService>();
        services.AddScoped<WeatherForecastControllerService>();
        return services;
    }
}

In the WASM project in program.cs:

C#
// program.cs
public static async Task Main(string[] args)
{
    .....
    // Added here as we don't have access to builder in AddApplicationServices
    builder.Services.AddScoped(sp => new HttpClient { BaseAddress = new Uri(builder.HostEnvironment.BaseAddress) });
    // the Services for the Application
    builder.Services.AddWASMApplicationServices();
    .....
}
C#
// ServiceCollectionExtensions.cs
public static IServiceCollection AddWASMApplicationServices(this IServiceCollection services)
{
    services.AddScoped<IFactoryDataService, FactoryWASMDataService>();
    services.AddScoped<WeatherForecastControllerService>();
    return services;
}

Points:

  1. There's an IServiceCollection extension method for each project/library to encapsulate the specific services needed for the project.
  2. Only the data layer service is different.   The Server version, used by both the Blazor Server and the WASM API Server, interfaces with the database and Entity Framework.   It's scoped as a Singleton.
  3. Everything is async, using a DbContextFactory and manage DbContext instances as they are used.   The WASM Client version uses HttpClient (which is a scoped service) to make calls to the API and is therefore scoped.
  4. the FactoryDataService implementing IFactoryDataService processes all data requests through generics.   TRecord defines which dataset is retrieved and returned.   The factory services boilerplate all core data service code.
  5. There's both a real SQL Database and an in-memory SQLite DbContext.

Generics

The factory library code relies heavily on Generics.   Two generic entities are defined:

  1. TRecord represents a model record class.   It must be a class, implement IDbRecord and define an empty new().   TRecord is used at the method level.
  2. TDbContext is the database context.  It must inherit from the DbContext class.

Class declarations look like this:

C#
//Blazor.SPA/Services/FactoryDataService.cs
public abstract class FactoryDataService<TContext>: IFactoryDataService<TContext>
    where TContext : DbContext
......
    // example method template  
    public virtual Task<TRecord> GetRecordAsync<TRecord>(int id) where TRecord : class, IDbRecord<TRecord>, new()
        => Task.FromResult(new TRecord());

Data Access

Before diving into the detail, let's look at the main CRUDL methods we need to implement:

  1. GetRecordList - get a List of records in the dataset.   This can be paged and sorted.
  2. GetRecord - get a single record by ID
  3. CreateRecord - Create a new record
  4. UpdateRecord - Update the record based on ID
  5. DeleteRecord - Delete the record based on ID

Keep these in mind as we work through this article.

DbTaskResult

Data layer CUD operations return a DbTaskResult object.   Most of the properties are self-evident.   It's designed to be consumed by the UI to build CSS Framework entities such as Alerts and Toasts.   NewID returns the new ID from a Create operation.

C#
public class DbTaskResult
{
    public string Message { get; set; } = "New Object Message";
    public MessageType Type { get; set; } = MessageType.None;
    public bool IsOK { get; set; } = true;
    public int NewID { get; set; } = 0;
}

Data Classes

Data classes implement IDbRecord.

  1. ID is the standard database Identity field.   normally an int.
  2. GUID is a unique identifier for this copy of the record.
  3. DisplayName provides a generic name for the record.   We can use this in titles and other UI components.
C#
public interface IDbRecord<TRecord>
    where TRecord : class, IDbRecord<TRecord>, new()
{
    public int ID { get; }
    public Guid GUID { get; }
    public string DisplayName { get; }
}

WeatherForecast

Here's the dataclass for a WeatherForecast data entity.

Points:

  1. Entity Framework attributes used for property labelling.
  2. Implementation of IDbRecord.
  3. Implementation of IValidation.   We'll cover custom validation in the third article.
C#
public class WeatherForecast : IValidation, IDbRecord<WeatherForecast>
{
    [Key] public int ID { get; set; } = -1;
    public DateTime Date { get; set; } = DateTime.Now;
    public int TemperatureC { get; set; } = 0;
    [NotMapped] public int TemperatureF => 32 + (int)(TemperatureC / 0.5556);
    public string Summary { get; set; } = string.Empty;
    [NotMapped] public Guid GUID { get; init; } = Guid.NewGuid();
    [NotMapped] public string DisplayName => $"Weather Forecast for {this.Date.ToShortDateString()} ";

    public bool Validate(ValidationMessageStore validationMessageStore, string fieldname, object model = null)
    {
        model = model ?? this;
        bool trip = false;

        this.Summary.Validation("Summary", model, validationMessageStore)
            .LongerThan(2, "Your description needs to be a little longer! 3 letters minimum")
            .Validate(ref trip, fieldname);

        this.Date.Validation("Date", model, validationMessageStore)
            .NotDefault("You must select a date")
            .LessThan(DateTime.Now.AddMonths(1), true, "Date can only be up to 1 month ahead")
            .Validate(ref trip, fieldname);

        this.TemperatureC.Validation("TemperatureC", model, validationMessageStore)
            .LessThan(70, "The temperature must be less than 70C")
            .GreaterThan(-60, "The temperature must be greater than -60C")
            .Validate(ref trip, fieldname);

        return !trip;
    }

The Entity Framework Tier

The application implements two Entity Framework DBContext classes.

WeatherForecastDBContext

The DbContext has a DbSet per record type.   Each DbSet is linked to a view in OnModelCreating().   The WeatherForecast application has one record type.

LocalWeatherDbContext

The class is very basic, creating a DbSet per dataclass.   The DBSet must be the same name as the dataclass.

C#
public class LocalWeatherDbContext : DbContext
{
    private readonly Guid _id;

    public LocalWeatherDbContext(DbContextOptions<LocalWeatherDbContext> options)
        : base(options)
        => _id = Guid.NewGuid();

    public DbSet<WeatherForecast> WeatherForecast { get; set; }
}

InMemoryWeatherDbContext

The in-memory version is a little more complicated, it needs to build and populate the database on the fly.

C#
public class InMemoryWeatherDbContext : DbContext
{
    private readonly Guid _id;

    public InMemoryWeatherDbContext(DbContextOptions<InMemoryWeatherDbContext> options)
        : base(options)
    {
        this._id = Guid.NewGuid();
        this.BuildInMemoryDatabase();
    }

    public DbSet<WeatherForecast> WeatherForecast { get; set; }

    private void BuildInMemoryDatabase()
    {
        var conn = this.Database.GetDbConnection();
        conn.Open();
        var cmd = conn.CreateCommand();
        cmd.CommandText = "CREATE TABLE [WeatherForecast]([ID] INTEGER PRIMARY KEY AUTOINCREMENT, [Date] [smalldatetime] NOT NULL, [TemperatureC] [int] NOT NULL, [Summary] [varchar](255) NULL)";
        cmd.ExecuteNonQuery();
        foreach (var forecast in this.NewForecasts)
        {
            cmd.CommandText = $"INSERT INTO WeatherForecast([Date], [TemperatureC], [Summary]) VALUES('{forecast.Date.ToLongDateString()}', {forecast.TemperatureC}, '{forecast.Summary}')";
            cmd.ExecuteNonQuery();
        }
    }

    private static readonly string[] Summaries = new[]
    {
        "Freezing", "Bracing", "Chilly", "Cool", "Mild", "Warm", "Balmy", "Hot", "Sweltering", "Scorching"
    };

    private List<WeatherForecast> NewForecasts
    {
        get
        {
            {
                var rng = new Random();

                return Enumerable.Range(1, 10).Select(index => new WeatherForecast
                {
                    //ID = index,
                    Date = DateTime.Now.AddDays(index),
                    TemperatureC = rng.Next(-20, 55),
                    Summary = Summaries[rng.Next(Summaries.Length)]
                }).ToList();
            }
        }
    }

DbContextExtensions

We use generics, so we need a way to get the DbSet for the dataclass declared as TRecord.   This is implemented as a extension method on DbContext.   For this to work, each DbSet should have the same name as the dataclass.  dbSetName provides backup if the names differ.  

The method uses reflection to find the DbSet for TRecord.

C#
public static DbSet<TRecord> GetDbSet<TRecord>(this DbContext context, string dbSetName = null) where TRecord : class, IDbRecord<TRecord>, new()
{
    var recname = new TRecord().GetType().Name;
    // Get the property info object for the DbSet 
    var pinfo = context.GetType().GetProperty(dbSetName ?? recname);
    DbSet<TRecord> dbSet = null; 
    // Get the property DbSet
    try
    {
        dbSet = (DbSet<TRecord>)pinfo.GetValue(context);
    }
    catch
    {
        throw new InvalidOperationException($"{recname} does not have a matching DBset ");
    }
    Debug.Assert(dbSet != null);
    return dbSet;
}

IFactoryDataService

IFactoryDataService defines the base CRUDL methods DataServices must implement.   Data Services are defined in the Services container using the interface and consumed through the interface.   Note TRecord in each method and it's constraints.   There are two GetRecordListAsync methods.   One gets the whole dataset, the other uses a PaginstorData object to page and sort the dataset.   More on the Paginator in articles 5.

C#
public interface IFactoryDataService 
{
    public Task<List<TRecord>> GetRecordListAsync<TRecord>() where TRecord : class, IDbRecord<TRecord>, new();
    public Task<List<TRecord>> GetRecordListAsync<TRecord>(PaginatorData paginatorData) where TRecord : class, IDbRecord<TRecord>, new();
    public Task<TRecord> GetRecordAsync<TRecord>(int id) where TRecord : class, IDbRecord<TRecord>, new();
    public Task<int> GetRecordListCountAsync<TRecord>() where TRecord : class, IDbRecord<TRecord>, new();
    public Task<DbTaskResult> UpdateRecordAsync<TRecord>(TRecord record) where TRecord : class, IDbRecord<TRecord>, new();
    public Task<DbTaskResult> CreateRecordAsync<TRecord>(TRecord record) where TRecord : class, IDbRecord<TRecord>, new();
    public Task<DbTaskResult> DeleteRecordAsync<TRecord>(TRecord record) where TRecord : class, IDbRecord<TRecord>, new();
}

FactoryDataService

FactoryDataService is abstract implementation of IFactoryDataService.   It provides default records, lists or not implemented DBTaskResult messages.  

C#
public abstract class FactoryDataService: IFactoryDataService
{
    public Guid ServiceID { get; } = Guid.NewGuid();
    public IConfiguration AppConfiguration { get; set; }

    public FactoryDataService(IConfiguration configuration) => this.AppConfiguration = configuration;

    public virtual Task<List<TRecord>> GetRecordListAsync<TRecord>() where TRecord : class, IDbRecord<TRecord>, new()
        => Task.FromResult(new List<TRecord>());
    public virtual Task<List<TRecord>> GetRecordListAsync<TRecord>(PaginatorData paginatorData) where TRecord : class, IDbRecord<TRecord>, new()
        => Task.FromResult(new List<TRecord>());
    public virtual Task<TRecord> GetRecordAsync<TRecord>(int id) where TRecord : class, IDbRecord<TRecord>, new()
        => Task.FromResult(new TRecord());
    public virtual Task<int> GetRecordListCountAsync<TRecord>() where TRecord : class, IDbRecord<TRecord>, new()
        => Task.FromResult(0);
    public virtual Task<DbTaskResult> UpdateRecordAsync<TRecord>(TRecord record) where TRecord : class, IDbRecord<TRecord>, new()
        => Task.FromResult(new DbTaskResult() { IsOK = false, Type = MessageType.NotImplemented, Message = "Method not implemented" });
    public virtual Task<DbTaskResult> CreateRecordAsync<TRecord>(TRecord record) where TRecord : class, IDbRecord<TRecord>, new()
        => Task.FromResult(new DbTaskResult() { IsOK = false, Type = MessageType.NotImplemented, Message = "Method not implemented" });
    public virtual Task<DbTaskResult> DeleteRecordAsync<TRecord>(TRecord record) where TRecord : class, IDbRecord<TRecord>, new()
        => Task.FromResult(new DbTaskResult() { IsOK = false, Type = MessageType.NotImplemented, Message = "Method not implemented" });
}

FactoryServerDataService

This is the concrete server-side implementation.   Each database operation is implemented using separate DbContext instances.   Note GetDBSet used to get the correct DBSet for TRecord.

C#
public class FactoryServerDataService<TDbContext> : FactoryDataService where TDbContext : DbContext
{
    protected virtual IDbContextFactory<TDbContext> DBContext { get; set; } = null;

    public FactoryServerDataService(IConfiguration configuration, IDbContextFactory<TDbContext> dbContext) : base(configuration)
        => this.DBContext = dbContext;

    public override async Task<List<TRecord>> GetRecordListAsync<TRecord>()
        => await this.DBContext
            .CreateDbContext()
            .GetDbSet<TRecord>()
            .ToListAsync() ?? new List<TRecord>();

    public override async Task<List<TRecord>> GetRecordListAsync<TRecord>(PaginatorData paginatorData)
    {
        var startpage = paginatorData.Page <= 1
            ? 0
            : (paginatorData.Page - 1) * paginatorData.PageSize;
        var context = this.DBContext.CreateDbContext();
        var dbset = this.DBContext
            .CreateDbContext()
            .GetDbSet<TRecord>();
        var x = typeof(TRecord).GetProperty(paginatorData.SortColumn);
        var isSortable = typeof(TRecord).GetProperty(paginatorData.SortColumn) != null;
        if (isSortable)
        {
            var list = await dbset
                .OrderBy(paginatorData.SortDescending ? $"{paginatorData.SortColumn} descending" : paginatorData.SortColumn)
                .Skip(startpage)
                .Take(paginatorData.PageSize).ToListAsync() ?? new List<TRecord>();
            return list;
        }
        else
        {
            var list = await dbset
                .Skip(startpage)
                .Take(paginatorData.PageSize).ToListAsync() ?? new List<TRecord>();
            return list;
        }
    }

    public override async Task<TRecord> GetRecordAsync<TRecord>(int id)
        => await this.DBContext.
            CreateDbContext().
            GetDbSet<TRecord>().
            FirstOrDefaultAsync(item => ((IDbRecord<TRecord>)item).ID == id) ?? default;

    public override async Task<int> GetRecordListCountAsync<TRecord>()
        => await this.DBContext.CreateDbContext().GetDbSet<TRecord>().CountAsync();

    public override async Task<DbTaskResult> UpdateRecordAsync<TRecord>(TRecord record)
    {
        var context = this.DBContext.CreateDbContext();
        context.Entry(record).State = EntityState.Modified;
        return await this.UpdateContext(context);
    }

    public override async Task<DbTaskResult> CreateRecordAsync<TRecord>(TRecord record)
    {
        var context = this.DBContext.CreateDbContext();
        context.GetDbSet<TRecord>().Add(record);
        return await this.UpdateContext(context);
    }

    public override async Task<DbTaskResult> DeleteRecordAsync<TRecord>(TRecord record)
    {
        var context = this.DBContext.CreateDbContext();
        context.Entry(record).State = EntityState.Deleted;
        return await this.UpdateContext(context);
    }

    protected async Task<DbTaskResult> UpdateContext(DbContext context)
        => await context.SaveChangesAsync() > 0 ? DbTaskResult.OK() : DbTaskResult.NotOK();
}

The FactoryWASMDataService looks a little different.   It implements the interface, but uses HttpClient to get/post to the API on the server.

The service map looks like this:

UI Controller Service => WASMDataService => API Controller => ServerDataService => DBContext

C#
public class FactoryWASMDataService : FactoryDataService, IFactoryDataService
{
    protected HttpClient HttpClient { get; set; }

    public FactoryWASMDataService(IConfiguration configuration, HttpClient httpClient) : base(configuration)
        => this.HttpClient = httpClient;

    public override async Task<List<TRecord>> GetRecordListAsync<TRecord>()
        => await this.HttpClient.GetFromJsonAsync<List<TRecord>>($"{GetRecordName<TRecord>()}/list");

    public override async Task<List<TRecord>> GetRecordListAsync<TRecord>(PaginatorData paginatorData)
    {
        var response = await this.HttpClient.PostAsJsonAsync($"{GetRecordName<TRecord>()}/listpaged", paginatorData);
        return await response.Content.ReadFromJsonAsync<List<TRecord>>();
    }

    public override async Task<TRecord> GetRecordAsync<TRecord>(int id)
    {
        var response = await this.HttpClient.PostAsJsonAsync($"{GetRecordName<TRecord>()}/read", id);
        var result = await response.Content.ReadFromJsonAsync<TRecord>();
        return result;
    }

    public override async Task<int> GetRecordListCountAsync<TRecord>()
        => await this.HttpClient.GetFromJsonAsync<int>($"{GetRecordName<TRecord>()}/count");

    public override async Task<DbTaskResult> UpdateRecordAsync<TRecord>(TRecord record)
    {
        var response = await this.HttpClient.PostAsJsonAsync<TRecord>($"{GetRecordName<TRecord>()}/update", record);
        var result = await response.Content.ReadFromJsonAsync<DbTaskResult>();
        return result;
    }

    public override async Task<DbTaskResult> CreateRecordAsync<TRecord>(TRecord record)
    {
        var response = await this.HttpClient.PostAsJsonAsync<TRecord>($"{GetRecordName<TRecord>()}/create", record);
        var result = await response.Content.ReadFromJsonAsync<DbTaskResult>();
        return result;
    }

    public override async Task<DbTaskResult> DeleteRecordAsync<TRecord>(TRecord record)
    {
        var response = await this.HttpClient.PostAsJsonAsync<TRecord>($"{GetRecordName<TRecord>()}/update", record);
        var result = await response.Content.ReadFromJsonAsync<DbTaskResult>();
        return result;
    }

    protected string GetRecordName<TRecord>() where TRecord : class, IDbRecord<TRecord>, new()
        => new TRecord().GetType().Name;
}

API Controllers

Controllers are implemented in the Web project, one per DataClass.

The WeatherForecast Controller is shown below.   It basically passes requests through the IFactoryService interface to the FactoryServerDataService.

C#
[ApiController]
public class WeatherForecastController : ControllerBase
{
    protected IFactoryDataService DataService { get; set; }
    private readonly ILogger<WeatherForecastController> logger;

    public WeatherForecastController(ILogger<WeatherForecastController> logger, IFactoryDataService dataService)
    {
        this.DataService = dataService;
        this.logger = logger;
    }

    [MVC.Route("weatherforecast/list")]
    [HttpGet]
    public async Task<List<WeatherForecast>> GetList() => await DataService.GetRecordListAsync<WeatherForecast>();

    [MVC.Route("weatherforecast/listpaged")]
    [HttpGet]
    public async Task<List<WeatherForecast>> Read([FromBody] PaginatorData data) => await DataService.GetRecordListAsync<WeatherForecast>( paginator: data);

    [MVC.Route("weatherforecast/count")]
    [HttpGet]
    public async Task<int> Count() => await DataService.GetRecordListCountAsync<WeatherForecast>();

    [MVC.Route("weatherforecast/get")]
    [HttpGet]
    public async Task<WeatherForecast> GetRec(int id) => await DataService.GetRecordAsync<WeatherForecast>(id);

    [MVC.Route("weatherforecast/read")]
    [HttpPost]
    public async Task<WeatherForecast> Read([FromBody]int id) => await DataService.GetRecordAsync<WeatherForecast>(id);

    [MVC.Route("weatherforecast/update")]
    [HttpPost]
    public async Task<DbTaskResult> Update([FromBody]WeatherForecast record) => await DataService.UpdateRecordAsync<WeatherForecast>(record);

    [MVC.Route("weatherforecast/create")]
    [HttpPost]
    public async Task<DbTaskResult> Create([FromBody]WeatherForecast record) => await DataService.CreateRecordAsync<WeatherForecast>(record);

    [MVC.Route("weatherforecast/delete")]
    [HttpPost]
    public async Task<DbTaskResult> Delete([FromBody] WeatherForecast record) => await DataService.DeleteRecordAsync<WeatherForecast>(record);
    }

FactoryServerInMemoryDataService

For testing and demos there's another Server Data Service using the SQLite in-memory DbContext.

The code is similar to FactoryServerDataService, but uses a single DbContext for all transactions.

C#
public class FactoryServerInMemoryDataService<TDbContext> : FactoryDataService, IFactoryDataService where TDbContext : DbContext
{
    protected virtual IDbContextFactory<TDbContext> DBContext { get; set; } = null;

    private DbContext _dbContext;

    public FactoryServerInMemoryDataService(IConfiguration configuration, IDbContextFactory<TDbContext> dbContext) : base(configuration)
    {
        this.DBContext = dbContext;
        _dbContext = this.DBContext.CreateDbContext();
    }

    public override async Task<List<TRecord>> GetRecordListAsync<TRecord>()
    {
        var dbset = _dbContext.GetDbSet<TRecord>();
        return await dbset.ToListAsync() ?? new List<TRecord>();
    }

    public override async Task<List<TRecord>> GetRecordListAsync<TRecord>(PaginatorData paginatorData)
    {
        var startpage = paginatorData.Page <= 1
            ? 0
            : (paginatorData.Page - 1) * paginatorData.PageSize;
        var dbset = _dbContext.GetDbSet<TRecord>();
        var isSortable = typeof(TRecord).GetProperty(paginatorData.SortColumn) != null;
        if (isSortable)
        {
            var list = await dbset
                .OrderBy(paginatorData.SortDescending ? $"{paginatorData.SortColumn} descending" : paginatorData.SortColumn)
                .Skip(startpage)
                .Take(paginatorData.PageSize).ToListAsync() ?? new List<TRecord>();
            return list;
        }
        else
        {
            var list = await dbset
                .Skip(startpage)
                .Take(paginatorData.PageSize).ToListAsync() ?? new List<TRecord>();
            return list;
        }
    }

    public override async Task<TRecord> GetRecordAsync<TRecord>(int id)
    {
        var dbset = _dbContext.GetDbSet<TRecord>();
        return await dbset.FirstOrDefaultAsync(item => ((IDbRecord<TRecord>)item).ID == id) ?? default;
    }

    public override async Task<int> GetRecordListCountAsync<TRecord>()
    {
        var dbset = _dbContext.GetDbSet<TRecord>();
        return await dbset.CountAsync();
    }

    public override async Task<DbTaskResult> UpdateRecordAsync<TRecord>(TRecord record)
    {
        _dbContext.Entry(record).State = EntityState.Modified;
        var x = await _dbContext.SaveChangesAsync();
        return new DbTaskResult() { IsOK = true, Type = MessageType.Success };
    }

    public override async Task<DbTaskResult> CreateRecordAsync<TRecord>(TRecord record)
    {
        var dbset = _dbContext.GetDbSet<TRecord>();
        dbset.Add(record);
        var x = await _dbContext.SaveChangesAsync();
        return new DbTaskResult() { IsOK = true, Type = MessageType.Success, NewID = record.ID };
    }

    public override async Task<DbTaskResult> DeleteRecordAsync<TRecord>(TRecord record)
    {
        _dbContext.Entry(record).State = EntityState.Deleted;
        var x = await _dbContext.SaveChangesAsync();
        return new DbTaskResult() { IsOK = true, Type = MessageType.Success };
    }
}

Controller Services

Controller Services are the interface between the Data Service and the UI.   They implement the logic needed to manage the dataclass they are responsible for.   While most of the code resides in FactoryControllerService, there's inevitiably some dataclass specific code.

IFactoryControllerService

IFactoryControllerService defines the common interface that the base forms code uses.

Note:

  1. Generic TRecord.
  2. Properties holding the current record and record list.
  3. Boolean logic properties to simplify state management.
  4. Events for record and list changes.
  5. Reset methods to reset the service/record/list.
  6. CRUDL methods that update/use the current record/list.
C#
public interface IFactoryControllerService<TRecord> where TRecord : class, IDbRecord<TRecord>, new()
{
    public Guid Id { get; }
    public TRecord Record { get; }
    public List<TRecord> Records { get; }
    public int RecordCount => this.Records?.Count ?? 0;
    public int RecordId { get; }
    public Guid RecordGUID { get; }
    public DbTaskResult DbResult { get; }
    public Paginator Paginator { get; }
    public bool IsRecord => this.Record != null && this.RecordId > -1;
    public bool HasRecords => this.Records != null && this.Records.Count > 0;
    public bool IsNewRecord => this.IsRecord && this.RecordId == -1;

    public event EventHandler RecordHasChanged;
    public event EventHandler ListHasChanged;

    public Task Reset();
    public Task ResetRecordAsync();
    public Task ResetListAsync();

    public Task GetRecordsAsync() => Task.CompletedTask;
    public Task<bool> SaveRecordAsync();
    public Task<bool> GetRecordAsync(int id);
    public Task<bool> NewRecordAsync();
    public Task<bool> DeleteRecordAsync();
}

FactoryControllerService

FactoryControllerService is abstract implementation of the IFactoryControllerService.   It contains all the boilerplate code.   Much of the code is self evident.  

C#
public abstract class FactoryControllerService<TRecord> : IDisposable, IFactoryControllerService<TRecord> where TRecord : class, IDbRecord<TRecord>, new()
{
    // unique ID for this instance
    public Guid Id { get; } = Guid.NewGuid();

    // Record Property.   Triggers Event when changed.
    public TRecord Record
    {
        get => _record;
        private set
        {
            this._record = value;
            this.RecordHasChanged?.Invoke(value, EventArgs.Empty);
        }
    }
    private TRecord _record = null;

    // Recordset Property.  Triggers Event when changed.
    public List<TRecord> Records
    {
        get => _records;
        private set
        {
            this._records = value;
            this.ListHasChanged?.Invoke(value, EventArgs.Empty);
        }
    }
    private List<TRecord> _records = null;

    public int RecordId => this.Record?.ID ?? 0;
    public Guid RecordGUID => this.Record?.GUID ?? Guid.Empty;
    public DbTaskResult DbResult { get; set; } = new DbTaskResult();

    /// Property for the Paging object that controls paging and interfaces with the UI Paging Control 
    public Paginator Paginator { get; private set; }

    public bool IsRecord => this.Record != null && this.RecordId > -1;
    public bool HasRecords => this.Records != null && this.Records.Count > 0;
    public bool IsNewRecord => this.IsRecord && this.RecordId == -1;

    /// Data Service for data access
    protected IFactoryDataService DataService { get; set; }

    public event EventHandler RecordHasChanged;
    public event EventHandler ListHasChanged;

    public FactoryControllerService(IFactoryDataService factoryDataService)
    {
        this.DataService = factoryDataService;
        this.Paginator = new Paginator(10, 5);
        this.Paginator.PageChanged += this.OnPageChanged;
    }

    /// Method to reset the service
    public Task Reset()
    {
        this.Record = null;
        this.Records = null;
        return Task.CompletedTask;
    }

    /// Method to reset the record list
    public Task ResetListAsync()
    {
        this.Records = null;
        return Task.CompletedTask;
    }

    /// Method to reset the Record
    public Task ResetRecordAsync()
    {
        this.Record = null;
        return Task.CompletedTask;
    }

    /// Method to get a recordset
    public async Task GetRecordsAsync()
    {
        this.Records = await DataService.GetRecordListAsync<TRecord>(this.Paginator.GetData);
        this.Paginator.RecordCount = await GetRecordListCountAsync();
        this.ListHasChanged?.Invoke(null, EventArgs.Empty);
    }

    /// Method to get a record
    /// if id < 1 will create a new record
    public async Task<bool> GetRecordAsync(int id)
    {
        if (id > 0)
            this.Record = await DataService.GetRecordAsync<TRecord>(id);
        else
            this.Record = new TRecord();
        return this.IsRecord;
    }

    /// Method to get the current record count
    public async Task<int> GetRecordListCountAsync()
        => await DataService.GetRecordListCountAsync<TRecord>();


    public async Task<bool> SaveRecordAsync()
    {
        if (this.RecordId == -1)
            this.DbResult = await DataService.CreateRecordAsync<TRecord>(this.Record);
        else
            this.DbResult = await DataService.UpdateRecordAsync(this.Record);
        await this.GetRecordsAsync();
        return this.DbResult.IsOK;
    }

    public async Task<bool> DeleteRecordAsync()
    {
        this.DbResult = await DataService.DeleteRecordAsync<TRecord>(this.Record);
        return this.DbResult.IsOK;
    }

    public Task<bool> NewRecordAsync()
    {
        this.Record = default(TRecord);
        return Task.FromResult(false);
    }

    protected async void OnPageChanged(object sender, EventArgs e)
        => await this.GetRecordsAsync();

    protected void NotifyRecordChanged(object sender, EventArgs e)
        => this.RecordHasChanged?.Invoke(sender, e);

    protected void NotifyListChanged(object sender, EventArgs e)
        => this.ListHasChanged?.Invoke(sender, e);

    public virtual void Dispose() {}
}

WeatherForecastControllerService

The boilerplating payback comes in the declaration of WeatheForcastControllerService:

C#
public class WeatherForecastControllerService : FactoryControllerService<WeatherForecast>
{
    public WeatherForecastControllerService(IFactoryDataService factoryDataService) : base(factoryDataService) { }
}

Wrap Up

This article shows how the data services can be built using a set of abstract classes implementing boilerplate code for CRUDL operations.   I've purposely kept error checking in the code to a minimum, to make it much more readable.   You can implement as little or as much as you like.

Some key points to note:

  1. Aysnc code is used wherever possible.   The data access functions are all async.
  2. Generics make much of the boilerplating possible.   They create complexity, but are worth the effort.
  3. Interfaces are crucial for Dependancy Injection and UI boilerplating.

If you're reading this article well into the future, check the readme in the repository for the latest version of the article set.

History

* 15-Sep-2020: Initial version.

* 2-Oct-2020: Minor formatting updates and typo fixes.

* 17-Nov-2020: Major Blazor.CEC library changes.   Change to ViewManager from Router and new Component base implementation.

* 28-Mar-2021: Major updates to Services, project structure and data editing.

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)

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About the Author

Shaun C Curtis
Retired Cold Elm
United Kingdom United Kingdom
Ex Geologist, Project Manager, Web Hoster, Business Owner and IT Consultant. Now, a traveller to places less travelled. And part time developer trying to keep up!

If you feel like saying thanks, the next time you see a charity request, DONATE. No matter how small, no matter who, it'll count. If you have a choice in the UK, Barnados.

Comments and Discussions

 
QuestionSource code in zip file empty Pin
Salam Y. ELIAS24-Jan-21 3:52
professionalSalam Y. ELIAS24-Jan-21 3:52 
AnswerRe: Source code in zip file empty Pin
Shaun C Curtis7-Feb-21 2:17
mvaShaun C Curtis7-Feb-21 2:17 
QuestionGreat article Pin
Micke Lj18-Nov-20 20:21
MemberMicke Lj18-Nov-20 20:21 
AnswerRe: Great article Pin
Shaun C Curtis20-Nov-20 10:24
mvaShaun C Curtis20-Nov-20 10:24 
QuestionMicrosoft.AspNetCore.Identity.UI Pin
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AnswerRe: Microsoft.AspNetCore.Identity.UI Pin
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AnswerRe: Microsoft.AspNetCore.Identity.UI Pin
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AnswerRe: Microsoft.AspNetCore.Identity.UI Pin
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