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Posted 29 Jan 2016

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Setting up Windows 10 IoT Core on Raspberry Pi 2 B

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29 Jan 2016CPOL
This tip describes configuration options on Windows 10 IoT Core on Raspberry Pi 2 B

Introduction

In this tip, I will describe what configuration options are provided by Windows 10 IoT Core.

Background

This post is one of a series of posts which I wrote about development applications for Windows 10 IoT Core. To see all my posts, please visit my introduction article: Introduction to Windows 10 IoT.

Config.txt Settings

To read more about config.txt values, you can read the official documentation.

First thing that you can set up is config.txt on SD card of your device. Initial config looks like this:

gpu_mem=32                  # set ARM to 480Mb DRAM, VC to 32Mb DRAM
framebuffer_ignore_alpha=1  # Ignore the alpha channel for Windows.
framebuffer_swap=1          # Set the frame buffer to be Windows BGR compatible.
disable_overscan=1          # Disable overscan
init_uart_clock=16000000    # Set UART clock to 16Mhz
hdmi_group=2                # Use VESA Display Mode Timing over CEA
arm_freq=900
arm_freq_min=900
force_turbo=1

This config will result in output video in format 1360 x 768 @60Hz.

block starting with "arm_freq" is simply disabling ARM power management and dynamic frequency changes on Raspberry pi, and setting default frequency to 900Mhz. (Without this, your raspberry will run on 600Mhz because dynamic frequency changes are not implemented in Windows yet.)

Setting Up Screen Resolution

I needed full HD resolution on my display, so I use this additional setting in config (you just add these lines to config and restart device)

hdmi_drive=2
hdmi_mode=82

by hdmi_drive=2 I set it to DMT (Display Monitor Timings; the standard typically used by monitors)

by hdmi_mode=82 I set resolution to 1920x1080 @60Hz (1080p)

If you want to read more about supported resolution, you can find a very useful article here.

I have tested more of different settings and I ended up for now with this setting, since I do not need sound it is OK for me.

You can of course play with these settings and find out which resolution best fits your requirements.

To set correct display resolution, you need to change these three settings:

hdmi_group result
0 Auto-detect from EDID
1 CEA
2 DMT

Based on hdmi group, you can choose hdmi_mode (different modes are available for group 1 and group 2, you cannot choose hdmi_mode when hdmi_group is 0).

hdmi modes available for group 1

hdmi_mode resolution frequency notes
1 VGA (640x480)    
2 480p 60Hz  
3 480p 60Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
4 720p 60Hz  
5 1080i 60Hz  
6 480i 60Hz  
7 480i 60Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
8 240p 60Hz  
9 240p 60Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
10 480i 60Hz pixel quadrupling
11 480i 60Hz pixel quadrupling, 16:9 aspect ratio
12 240p 60Hz pixel quadrupling
13 240p 60Hz pixel quadrupling, 16:9 aspect ratio
14 480p 60Hz pixel doubling
15 480p 60Hz pixel doubling, 16:9 aspect ratio
16 1080p 60Hz  
17 576p 50Hz  
18 576p 50Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
19 720p 50Hz  
20 1080i 50Hz  
21 576i 50Hz  
22 576i 50Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
23 288p 50Hz  
24 288p 50Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
25 576i 50Hz pixel quadrupling
26 576i 50Hz pixel quadrupling, 16:9 aspect ratio
27 288p 50Hz pixel quadrupling
28 288p 50Hz pixel quadrupling, 16:9 aspect ratio
29 576p 50Hz pixel doubling
30 576p 50Hz pixel doubling, 16:9 aspect ratio
31 1080p 50Hz  
32 1080p 24Hz  
33 1080p 25Hz  
34 1080p 30Hz  
35 480p 60Hz pixel quadrupling
36 480p 60Hz pixel quadrupling, 16:9 aspect ratio
37 576p 50Hz pixel quadrupling
38 576p 50Hz pixel quadrupling, 16:9 aspect ratio
39 1080i 50Hz reduced blanking
40 1080i 100Hz  
41 720p 100Hz  
42 576p 100Hz  
43 576p 100Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
44 576i 100Hz  
45 576i 100Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
46 1080i 120Hz  
47 720p 120Hz  
48 480p 120Hz  
49 480p 120Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
50 480i 120Hz  
51 480i 120Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
52 576p 200Hz  
53 576p 200Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
54 576i 200Hz  
55 576i 200Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
56 480p 240Hz  
57 480p 240Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
58 480i 240Hz  
59 480i 240Hz 16:9 aspect ratio

hdmi modes available for group 2

hdmi_mode resolution frequency notes
1 640x350 85Hz  
2 640x400 85Hz  
3 720x400 85Hz  
4 640x480 60Hz  
5 640x480 72Hz  
6 640x480 75Hz  
7 640x480 85Hz  
8 800x600 56Hz  
9 800x600 60Hz  
10 800x600 72Hz  
11 800x600 75Hz  
12 800x600 85Hz  
13 800x600 120Hz  
14 848x480 60Hz  
15 1024x768 43Hz incompatible with the Raspberry Pi
16 1024x768 60Hz  
17 1024x768 70Hz  
18 1024x768 75Hz  
19 1024x768 85Hz  
20 1024x768 120Hz  
21 1152x864 75Hz  
22 1280x768   reduced blanking
23 1280x768 60Hz  
24 1280x768 75Hz  
25 1280x768 85Hz  
26 1280x768 120Hz reduced blanking
27 1280x800   reduced blanking
28 1280x800 60Hz  
29 1280x800 75Hz  
30 1280x800 85Hz  
31 1280x800 120Hz reduced blanking
32 1280x960 60Hz  
33 1280x960 85Hz  
34 1280x960 120Hz reduced blanking
35 1280x1024 60Hz  
36 1280x1024 75Hz  
37 1280x1024 85Hz  
38 1280x1024 120Hz reduced blanking
39 1360x768 60Hz  
40 1360x768 120Hz reduced blanking
41 1400x1050   reduced blanking
42 1400x1050 60Hz  
43 1400x1050 75Hz  
44 1400x1050 85Hz  
45 1400x1050 120Hz reduced blanking
46 1440x900   reduced blanking
47 1440x900 60Hz  
48 1440x900 75Hz  
49 1440x900 85Hz  
50 1440x900 120Hz reduced blanking
51 1600x1200 60Hz  
52 1600x1200 65Hz  
53 1600x1200 70Hz  
54 1600x1200 75Hz  
55 1600x1200 85Hz  
56 1600x1200 120Hz reduced blanking
57 1680x1050   reduced blanking
58 1680x1050 60Hz  
59 1680x1050 75Hz  
60 1680x1050 85Hz  
61 1680x1050 120Hz reduced blanking
62 1792x1344 60Hz  
63 1792x1344 75Hz  
64 1792x1344 120Hz reduced blanking
65 1856x1392 60Hz  
66 1856x1392 75Hz  
67 1856x1392 120Hz reduced blanking
68 1920x1200   reduced blanking
69 1920x1200 60Hz  
70 1920x1200 75Hz  
71 1920x1200 85Hz  
72 1920x1200 120Hz reduced blanking
73 1920x1440 60Hz  
74 1920x1440 75Hz  
75 1920x1440 120Hz reduced blanking
76 2560x1600   reduced blanking
77 2560x1600 60Hz  
78 2560x1600 75Hz  
79 2560x1600 85Hz  
80 2560x1600 120Hz reduced blanking
81 1366x768 60Hz  
82 1920x1080 60Hz 1080p
83 1600x900   reduced blanking
84 2048x1152   reduced blanking
85 1280x720 60Hz 720p
86 1366x768   reduced blanking

and last parameter, hdmi_drive:

hdmi_drive result
1 Normal DVI mode (No sound)
2 Normal HDMI mode (Sound will be sent if supported and enabled)

Don't worry about testing these values - the worst thing that could happen is that you will not output from your raspberry correctly, device will still boot up and it will be working correctly, you can just change the config and reboot the device.

Setting Up Screen Rotation

Sometimes, you want to rotate raspberry screen by 90, 180, or 270 degrees. You can do this using config too.

To do this, you will use display_rotate. Here are available values:

display_rotate result
0 No rotation
1 Rotate 90 degrees clockwise
2 Rotate 180 degrees clockwise
3 Rotate 270 degrees clockwise
0x10000 Horizontal flip
0x20000 Vertical flip

With this setting, you should be careful and test after every change, When I was using Windows on Raspberry pi, it did not boot up after I changed the rotation until I increased gpu_mem to some higher value like:

gpu_mem=128

Based on this and also based on my testing, it is best not to change display rotation of device because I think it consumes huge amount of processing power just to rotate the HDMI output. I have also experienced far worse performance when I was testing my app running in 90 degrees rotation.

Low Voltage Warning

I usually take power for my Raspberry pi from some TV which have USB ports, and usually I get low current warning directly from Raspberry pi. So far, I did not notice some performance or reliability problem associated with this, it is just annoying. See it in the picture.

Image 1

To disable it, just add this into config:

avoid_warnings=2

I know, this probably is not the best practice and this warning has a meaning there, but since it does not have any influence on my applications, I don't want to see it there. I would not like to add another power supply just to avoid this warning if it can be turned off simply and nothing will happen. In my case, I use TV USB port as power source. When I was testing it, I figured out that cause of this problem is usually a cable that you are using. So to fix it, I recommend to test several USB cables.

Connecting to filesystem on Raspberry Pi 2 B

There are several methods in which you can connect to filesystem on your Windows 10 IOT.

Accessing SD Card On Your Computer

This is the simplest method, but you have very limited set of settings that you can change. Basically, you can only modify config.txt.

I recommend first to shutdown Raspberry pi and then you can detach SD card and insert it into your computer. Then, you should see something like this:

Image 2

What you see on Windows is only the first partition of SD card. When SD card was created, Windows split it into 4 partitions. On Windows systems, it is for user visible only first partition with normal settings.

Connecting to Device filesystem Directly

To see all partitions and modify almost everything on filesystem, you need to put SD card back to Raspberry pi, and turn it on. Then, you can use IOT Dashboard to find its IP address. (To read more about IOT dashboard, you can read my previous article: Installing Windows 10 IoT core on Raspberry Pi 2).

After you know the IP address, just open Windows explorer and navigate to Raspberry pi. In my case, I typed this:

\\192.168.0.233\c$ 

Please note c$ at the end of address, it must be there, otherwise this will not work.

After you enter address of device, you will be prompted for your credentials to device, These are default credentials:

Username : Administrator
Password : p@ssw0rd

Of course, if you changed your password, enter new password instead.

When you login successfully, you should see filesystem on device:

Image 3

Here, you can see how filesystem is split on device, as root you see C:\ and also you can see links to Data, Crash dump and EFISP (this is partition you see when you insert SD card to your PC).

C:\ is installed main operating system, all Windows binaries are stored here, in Windows folder. You will not find here almost no user data, these are on Data partition.

Data\ you find working directories of apps that you have installed in \Data\Users\DefaultAccount.

CrashDump\ is probably used by system to store crashdumps, I have never seen anything interesting there.

EFISP\ is main boot partition, where config.txt is stored, you can modify it directly on device, but to see effects, you need to restart device.

Accessing Device Remotely

The third option is most powerful, you can access device's command line remotely from your computer. To do this, you can use Powershell or putty (putty is faster but has fewer options than Powershell). It does not matter from which operating system you connect to Raspberry pi.

Accessing Device Using powershell

1. Start powershell as Administrator on your PC.

Image 4

After you start powershell, you should run the following commands:

net start WinRM

The next step is to add machine key into trusted hosts list, you will do it by this command:

Set-Item WSMan:\localhost\Client\TrustedHosts -Value 192.168.0.233

Then, you confirm by "Y".

After this, you can connect to your device:

Enter-PSSession -ComputerName 192.168.0.233 -Credential 192.168.0.233\Administrator

After this command, you will be prompted to input your password. Default is p@ssw0rd

Please be patient, because this process takes a while (can be 2-3 minutes) When the process is finished, you should see console on device.

The output will look like this:

Image 5

It is very helpful to know console commands that you can use, I recommend you this site http://ss64.com/nt/.

Powershell is a very good option to connect to Raspberry pi, but in my opinion, it is a bit slow and some C++ console applications can run in an incorrect way in this. When you will have some problems with powershell, you still have at least one more option.

Accessing Device using Putty

Yes, you can connect to windows 10 IoT using putty or any other SSH client. And it is very simple, just download putty from: http://the.earth.li/~sgtatham/putty/latest/x86/putty.exe.

When you have it downloaded, just enter IP address of your device, as can be seen here.

Image 6

You will be prompted to enter username, which is Administrator and then password. (p@ssw0rd) you will be on the same console as when connected using Powershell, just, putty is much faster.

This is it. I hope you will be able to set everything up. If you will have some questions, just write in the comments below and I will respond.

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)

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About the Author

Martin Gmuca
Software Developer ...
Slovakia Slovakia
After study on University of Zilina, I started to work as software developer in this town in Slovakia, I have worked with various technologies, a bit of mobile apps, for android and iOS In latest time I specialize in ASP .NET and .NET C# applications. I like to learn and explore new technologies. Also I like photography and traveling.
I hope with my articles here I could help another developers solve similar problems that I was facing.

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