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Posted 24 Apr 2006

EvaLayout, Lay it be!

, 5 Sep 2016 CPOL
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An efficient and flexible layout mananger.

Who's gonna layout this?


Would it not be great configuring and switching dynamically, the layout of an application, as it were a property like a Color or a Font? Is there any layout manager that can do it?

By layout, we mean arranging and resizing the GUI components in a dialog. This can be done manually (e.g. using an editor), or automatically by a software piece called a layout manager. In both cases, laying out has always been something difficult to configure, change, and in most cases, impossible to be switched dynamically. Difficult until now, of course! In this article, we will see how easy it is to layout with EvaLayout.

Note that the flexibility and configuration of layouts, as it will be described, plays not only an important role in the look of the application, but also when modifying it, coding variants, and in the implementation of generic and rich components.


There are lots of layout managers, and also quite a different number of approaches. EvaLayout belongs to the group of grid layouts. The concepts of columns, rows, filling space, spanning columns and rows etc. is the basically the same in all these systems.  What is new in EvaLayout is the easy, clear, and flexible way of representing the whole layout information in a single text and, not less important, the decoupling between layout information and physical components that makes possible the advantages mentioned in the introduction.

Layout Info and Text Format in EvaLayout

Let us see the rules for defining an EvaLayout.

EvaLayout places all components within the cells of a grid - or table - of n columns and m rows. For the whole grid, the following can be defined:

  • A symmetric (same for left and right) horizontal margin
  • A symmetric (same for top and bottom) vertical margin
  • A horizontal gap (space between two adjacent columns)
  • A vertical gap (space between two adjacent rows)

For columns and rows, a header for each one determines its behaviour. There are three possibilities for these headers:

  • A (default): The size of the column/row will be adapted to the minimum required by the components in this column/row. That means, the maximum of the default sizes.
  • X: For expandable column/row. All expandable columns/rows will share the remaining space equally.
  • Number: Representing the width/height in pixels that the column/row has to have.

And finally, each cell in the grid may contain one of the following things:

  • blank, nothing is specified.
  • a name, it represents a logical name of a component, the cell where this name appears is the upper-left cell of the component.
  • sign -, a component that wants to occupy more cells at its right side (spanning columns) has to use this symbol in those cells.
  • sign +, a component that wants to occupy more cells at lower rows (spanning rows) has to use this symbol in that cells.

All this is given to the layout manager object (EvaLayoutManager) in a single text where the information is separated by commas. In the first line, the general margins and gaps are given, and the rest is for specifying the grid or the table. Note that the white spaces or blanks are only to make it more readable, they are actually not needed by EvaLayoutManager. Let us see an example. The text:

EvaLayout, 10, 10, 5, 5

grid,    75    ,    X    ,    A   ,
   A, boton1   , memo    ,    -   ,
   A, boton2   ,   +     ,        ,
   A, boton3   ,   +     ,        ,
   X,          ,   +     ,        ,
   A, text1    ,   -     , boton4 ,

describes a layout with:

  • 10 pixels of left, right, upper, and bottom margins
  • 5 pixels of horizontal and vertical gaps
  • A first column of 75 pixels, a second one expandable, and a third one adaptable
  • Five rows, all adaptable except the one that is expandable
  • A memo component that spans vertically 3 rows and horizontally 1 column
  • A text component that spans horizontally 1 column

The whole design could look like:

design layout

and the resultant dialog is:

resultant dialog

Now, we will see how to implement it in a C++ Windows application. We will show how to do it using the Windows API as it is done in the demo project, but it is also possible to do it in a MFC application and there is a how-to text that explains it.

Using the Code

For the implementation, we will need the following objects (note that except EvaLayoutInfo, the rest could be local objects):

#include "EvaLayoutManager.h"

#include "EvaLine.h"
#include "EvaUnit.h"
#include "EvaFile.h"

// to load layout info from a file
EvaFile eFile;
// to load layout info from a file
// or to store more layout info's
EvaUnit eUnit;
// layout info object
Eva     eLayoutInfo;

// the layout manager
EvaLayoutManager manager;

We divide the steps to use EvaLayoutManager, in four:

  • Preparing or loading the layout Info
  • Setting the layout info into the manager
  • Declaring the real components to handle
  • Doing the layout (positioning and resizing the components)

Preparing or Loading the Layout Info

The preparation can be done, for instance, in the message WM_INITDIALOG, and consists in setting at least an Eva object or, in order to load more layouts, an EvaUnit object that can be used as if it were an array of Evas. This preparation can be done in two ways:

  1. Directly:
    BOOL CALLBACK MainDlgProc(HWND hDlg, UINT uMsg, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)
          case WM_INITDIALOG:
             Eva layInfo;
             layInfo.addLine (EvaLine ("EvaLayout, 10, 10, 5, 5"));
             layInfo.addLine (EvaLine ("  grid,    75    ,    X    ,    A   ,"));
             layInfo.addLine (EvaLine ("     A, boton1   , memo    ,    -   ,"));
             layInfo.addLine (EvaLine ("     A, boton2   ,   +     ,        ,"));
             layInfo.addLine (EvaLine ("     A, boton3   ,   +     ,        ,"));
             layInfo.addLine (EvaLine ("     X,          ,   +     ,        ,"));
             layInfo.addLine (EvaLine ("     A, edit1    ,   -     , boton4 ,"));
  2. From a file (Eva format, see the file WinLayouts.eva in the demo project):
    BOOL CALLBACK MainDlgProc(HWND hDlg, UINT uMsg, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)
          case WM_INITDIALOG:
             EvaFile eFile;
             EvaUnit eUnit;
             Eva     eLayInfo;
             eFile.load (eUnit, "WinLayouts.eva", "data");
             layInfo = eUnit[0];

Setting the Layout Info into the Manager

This is just a call to the method setLayout of the layout manager. The message WM_INITDIALOG is a good place for that too, but note that this can also be performed wherever and whenever, to dynamically change the layout. After doing that, you should force a repaint, or better, a resize message. In the demo project, it is done somehow "tricky" but I think effectively.

   // force WM_SIZE (resize) here!

Declaring the Real Components to Handle

This step associates the physical window handle of the component with its logical name given in the layout info. This is thought to be done once but it could be carried out more times. The components that appear in our layout info, and all the components associated with the dialog are to be added here. The layout manager shows or hides the components according to the layout info, but it has to know all of them.

manager.removeComponents(); // if appropriate

manager.addComponent("memo",    GetDlgItem(hDlg, ID_MEMO));
manager.addComponent("boton1",  GetDlgItem(hDlg, ID_BUTTON_1));
manager.addComponent("boton2",  GetDlgItem(hDlg, ID_BUTTON_2));
manager.addComponent("boton3",  GetDlgItem(hDlg, ID_BUTTON_3));

Doing the Layout (Positioning and Resizing the Components)

It should be enough to do it in the WM_SIZE message handler.

              WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)
      case WM_SIZE:
            manager.doLayout(wParam, lParam);

Conclusions and Future Versions

In spite of its simplicity, this layout can do almost everything that is reasonably needed in normal applications.
This layout is available in java, C++ (this article) and now also in java script! (more about this very soon)

Version 4 Composition and Masking components

This version add two new features to the C++ EvaLayout library that makes much more easier defining complex layouts and permits changing dynamically not only all but also a part of the layout .

Composition of layouts

Given that we pass to the manager several layouts (or layout info). By composition it is meant that a layout can reference not only components but also another layout and this will be resolved by the manager automatically. This facilitates a lot defining complex layout by dividing it into smaller pieces.

Component Mask Mechanism

A new function in the class EvaLayoutManager called maskElement permits the replacement of one component (widget or layout) by another one. In other words the ability of changing a part of the window dynamically in a straightforward way.
Both features are shown in the demo included in the EvaLayoutV4 download.

Version Javascript

This javascript version of EvaLayout has the same features, composition and masking, as the C++ version 4. In fact it was derived from the last one.

I have to thank Domingo Alvarez, who had the iniciative of translating the first Evalayout of this article to javascript in his github project

The version used in the attached samples is a small part of a big project that offers much more that just layouting. Check it out if you wish

Html code of a simple example using Evalayout js


      <!-- elements will be arranged by layout manager -->

      <button id="bButton1">Boton 1</button>

and the result in the browser

It is included also a small interactive example, changing the layout dynamically using the mask method.
All samples are very simple, just play with them adding more elements and layouts, it can handle everything!


  • 22.04.2006 - First release
  • 02.01.2008 - Fixed some bugs and added a cleaner MFC example
  • 21.01.2016 - Version4 Layout composition and Mask mechanism
  • 06.08.2016 - Version Javascript


This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)


About the Author

I have a Telecomunications Engineering degree but since I learnt the first language (Pascal), almost I haven't stopped developing software. Mainly with C and C++ but I have touched many other languages and scripts. I use also to develop for fun (reinventing the wheel, of course!), currently almost all of such programs and tools are written in java (visit

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Comments and Discussions

Questioncould you share more details on your Layout algorithm? Pin
Southmountain19-Mar-17 15:03
memberSouthmountain19-Mar-17 15:03 
PraiseKeep up with good work Pin
Huzifa Terkawi18-Dec-16 21:20
memberHuzifa Terkawi18-Dec-16 21:20 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pin
eslipak6-Sep-16 12:35
professionaleslipak6-Sep-16 12:35 
QuestionNew Version released Pin
Alejandro Xalabarder20-Jan-16 14:21
memberAlejandro Xalabarder20-Jan-16 14:21 
BugCComboBox can not be pull down if... Pin
dunniu29-Jul-15 4:38
memberdunniu29-Jul-15 4:38 
GeneralRe: CComboBox can not be pull down if... Pin
dunniu30-Jul-15 20:58
memberdunniu30-Jul-15 20:58 
GeneralRe: CComboBox can not be pull down if... Pin
Alejandro Xalabarder21-Oct-15 12:04
memberAlejandro Xalabarder21-Oct-15 12:04 
GeneralRe: CComboBox can not be pull down if... Pin
Alejandro Xalabarder20-Jan-16 14:15
memberAlejandro Xalabarder20-Jan-16 14:15 
GeneralRe: CComboBox can not be pull down if... Pin
dunniu18-Feb-16 19:25
memberdunniu18-Feb-16 19:25 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pin
tang100071-Aug-12 4:42
membertang100071-Aug-12 4:42 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pin
Rajiv Bhagwat26-Jul-12 5:39
memberRajiv Bhagwat26-Jul-12 5:39 
GeneralDesign idea Pin
v_srinu_26_f25-Apr-09 18:24
memberv_srinu_26_f25-Apr-09 18:24 
GeneralRe: Design idea [modified] Pin
Alejandro Xalabarder29-Apr-09 10:33
memberAlejandro Xalabarder29-Apr-09 10:33 
QuestionAlignment within a cell for component (L C R FILL T C B FILL) Pin
v_srinu_26_f25-Apr-09 18:15
memberv_srinu_26_f25-Apr-09 18:15 
AnswerRe: Alignment within a cell for component (L C R FILL T C B FILL) [modified] Pin
Alejandro Xalabarder29-Apr-09 9:51
memberAlejandro Xalabarder29-Apr-09 9:51 
GeneralA Bug! Pin
Ali Khanlarkhani5-Nov-07 4:07
memberAli Khanlarkhani5-Nov-07 4:07 
GeneralRe: A Bug! Pin
Alejandro Xalabarder6-Nov-07 13:21
memberAlejandro Xalabarder6-Nov-07 13:21 
Hi Ali,
you are right, it is a bug. The button "boton2" should at least
have the minimum height (row is A=Adapted). Even more, the same bug appears
also in my java version of EvaLayout (the original one), I will examine the
algorithm to see what happens in this case and hopefully I can report a
fixed version soon. Thank you for that!

Anyway, I am sure that you can achieve what you wanted with the current version.
For example if you wanted that the button "boton2" behaves like the "boton4" (expand vertically) it is enough to mark it as expandable (X). That is

X, boton2, +,,

Note that the line "A, +, +,," have actually no meaning. We tell to adapt the row to the given components but there are no components in this row! The same happens with the last column A (no component is to be found in the last column), you can simply remove it and the layout will be the same.

Nevertheless, a row or a column marked as expandable even with no component
at all might have a meaning. For instance, if you want that "boton2" expands
double than "boton4" then you can write :
X, boton2, +,,
X,   +   , +,,

Finally if your intention was to make "boton2" bigger than "boton1" and "boton3" but not explandable you can achieve it with something like

A , boton2, +,,
30,   +   , +,,

thank you again!
GeneralIt is not a bug Pin
Alejandro Xalabarder29-Dec-07 11:11
memberAlejandro Xalabarder29-Dec-07 11:11 
NewsBug fix: memory leak and code for MFC Pin
$@m10-Jun-07 7:04
member$@m10-Jun-07 7:04 
NewsAnother solution Pin
$@m11-Jun-07 0:09
member$@m11-Jun-07 0:09 
GeneralRe: Bug fix: memory leak and code for MFC Pin
Alejandro Xalabarder6-Nov-07 14:13
memberAlejandro Xalabarder6-Nov-07 14:13 
GeneralFixed in new Code. Pin
Alejandro Xalabarder29-Dec-07 10:38
memberAlejandro Xalabarder29-Dec-07 10:38 
GeneralRe: Fixed in new Code. Pin
$@m1-Jan-08 22:33
member$@m1-Jan-08 22:33 
GeneralRe: Fixed in new Code. Pin
Alejandro Xalabarder2-Jan-08 13:18
memberAlejandro Xalabarder2-Jan-08 13:18 
QuestionWhat about removing a line? Pin
Hamed Mosavi20-Jul-06 16:29
memberHamed Mosavi20-Jul-06 16:29 

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