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Tower of Hanoi in JavaScript

, 6 Jan 2016 CPOL
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The article describes a JavaScript-based solution to Tower of Hanoi problem

JS_Hanoi Image


The purpose of this post is to present a JavaScript-based solution to the famous Tower of Hanoi problem. The problem calls for moving a set of disks from one tower to another with the restriction that at no time a disk is placed on top of a smaller disk. The problem has an associated well-known recursive algorithm.

The proposed solution (HTML and JavaScript all within one HTML file) shows a possible animation of the algorithm using JavaScript setInterval() function.

The idea for animating the recursive tower-of-Hanoi algorithm the way it is described here is not new. I did implement it some 15 years back in Visual Basic. A video of this is available at this link.

A Recursive Algorithm for Tower of Hanoi

The well-known recursive algorithm for the tower of Hanoi problem can be expressed by the following JavaScript function:

function Hanoi(n, from, to , via)
  if (n==0) return;

  Hanoi(n-1, from, via , to);


  // callStack.push([from,to]); // save parameters to callStack array
  Hanoi(n-1, via, to , from);

The input to the algorithm are 4 integer parameters, as follows:

  1. n: number of disks; serves as the problem size for recursion
  2. from: the "from" tower is where the disks are placed
  3. to: the "to" tower is where the disks must be finally placed
  4. via: the "via" tower is that used as an intermediate location as disks are moved between the towers from and to.

Normally (if we denote the towers with 0,1,2), the initial call for n disks will be Hanoi(n,0,2,1).

A recursive algorithm normally tries to find subproblems (instances of the original problem but with smaller problem size). Then express the solution for the original problem in terms of the solutions to the subproblems. The recursive algorithm for the tower of Hanoi is based on observing that the top n-1 disks at the "from" tower (together with the other two towers) represent a smaller-size instance of the original problem and, thus, can be solved by the call Hanoi(n-1, 0,1,2). This moves the disks to the middle tower (#1) using the other tower (#2) as intermediate. After this, we can move the n-th disk from tower #0 to tower #2 and then move all the n-1 disks from the middle tower to the last tower using tower #0 as intermediate by the call Hanoi(n-1, 1,2,0).

The above algorithm encodes the preceding description but with the parameters for the towers kept as variables instead of being specific values.

Animation Handling in JavaScript is Problematic

Normally animation code can utilize JavaScript timer functions: setInterval() or setTimer(). However, things are not that easy. Suppose, in the above code, the call to the function moveDisk() is animated using setInterval(). A problem arises because code in the caller will continue executing and interfere (miss up shared data) with the animation. One might suggest that the caller sleeps for a while to allow for animation to complete. However, JavaScript lacks a "real" delay or sleep mechanism. If we are to implement the delay by a spin-loop, it would bring things to a stand-still because the whole of JavaScript code executes on one thread.

It seems that JavaScript animation uses the pattern: if you start animation, do not do anything else.

For the tower-of-Hanoi algorithm, we want to animate one call to moveDisk(), return to the caller until we encounter the next call to moveDisk(), animate it, and so on. But with JavaScript animation, somehow, we have to follow the pattern: animate moveDisk(), animate the next moveDisk(), ... and so on. In other words, every call to moveDisk() should issue (at the time when it is done) the next call to moveDisk(). But then how to find all these moveDisk() calls. After some thought, I was asking myself: Why not use a stack (callStack) to save the "from,to" call-parameters to moveDisk(). Using a stack will also preserve the order of the calls. This is essentially what I did, that is, in the above code comment the line moveDisk(); and uncomment the line callStack.push([from,to]);. Now the modified Hanoi() function is called from the function executeHanoi() given below.

The following listing shows the complete source code of my script.

var callcallStack;   

function executeHanoi()
{ //  Some initialization code goes here
  callStack=[];  // callStack array is global

  Hanoi(diskCount, 0,2,1);
  moveDisk();  // moveDisk takes its parameters from callStack

function moveDisk()
{  if (callStack.length==0) return; 

   var param = callStack.shift(); // Get call parameters from callStack
   // Note: throughout the code, I use fromBar, toBar to refer to towers
   fromBar = param[0];
   toBar = param[1];
   // find top element in fromBar
   var elem = document.getElementById(barsInfo[fromBar].disks.pop());  
   moveInfo = { elem: elem,
                fromBar: fromBar,
                toBar: toBar,
                whichPos: "top", // element position property for movement
                dir: -1,  // 1 or -1
                state: "up", // move upward
                endPos:60    // end position (in pixels) for move upward

   myTimer = setInterval(animateMove,speed); // Start animation

After the call to Hanoi(), the callStack will have an entry for each moveDisk() call. The processing of these entries is handled by the function moveDisk(). The function moveDisk() retrieves an entry from callStack and sets up an object moveInfo for passing data needed for the animateMove() function. The animation is started by the line myTimer = setInterval(animateMove,speed).

The following code listing shows the code for the animateMove() function.

function animateMove()
{  var elem = moveInfo.elem;
   var dir = moveInfo.dir;
   var styleInfo = window.getComputedStyle(elem);
   var pos = parseInt(styleInfo[moveInfo.whichPos]);
   if (((dir==1) && (pos >= moveInfo.endPos)) || 
             ((dir==-1) && (pos <= moveInfo.endPos)))
   {  // alert(moveInfo.state); 
     if (moveInfo.state == "up")
     {  moveInfo.state = "hor";
        moveInfo.whichPos ="left";
        moveInfo.dir = 1;
        if ( moveInfo.fromBar >  moveInfo.toBar) moveInfo.dir = -1;
        //alert("toBar:" + moveInfo.toBar);
        var toBar = document.getElementById("bar"+ moveInfo.toBar);
        // alert(toBar.offsetLeft); 
        moveInfo.endPos = toBar.offsetLeft - 
               Math.floor(elem.offsetWidth/2)+15; // 15 is half of tower width

     else if (moveInfo.state  == "hor" ) // move down
     {  // alert("here");
        moveInfo.state = "down";
        moveInfo.whichPos ="top";
        moveInfo.dir = 1; 
        moveInfo.endPos = document.getElementById("bottombar").offsetTop - 

     else // end of current call to moveDisk, issue next call
     {  clearInterval(myTimer);  // cancel timer

   pos = pos + dir*moveInc;[moveInfo.whichPos] = pos+ "px"; 

The animateMove() function essentially moves a disk up then right or left (if toBar < fromBar) then down and finally issues the next call to moveDisk(). Note that the timer is cancelled (using the call clearInterval(myTimer)) before making the next call to moveDisk(). This is to prevent animateMove() from incorrectly using the moveInfo object.

Limitations, suggestions

The presented code was tested in latest versions of popular browsers. It works perfectly in IE (version 11), Chrome (version 30), and Firefox (version 24). The animation in our solution is limited by the timer accuracy of JavaScript setInterval() function, which cannot be smaller than one millisecond. It may be possible to get faster animation using window.requestAnimationFrame() function. Finally, the graphics could be enhanced by using 3-D images for the disks that get partially covered by the tower during upward and downward movements.


  • 7th November, 2013: Initial version. 
  • 15th November, 2013: Updated with better graphics.
  • 7th November, 2015: A slight update to program code to have the disks move to the leftmost column whenever "Start" button is clicked.


This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)


About the Author

Nasir Darwish
Instructor / Trainer KFUPM
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia

Nasir Darwish is an associate professor with the Department of Information and Computer Science, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Saudi Arabia.

Developed some practical tools including COPS (Cooperative Problem Solving), PageGen (a tool for automatic generation of web pages), and an English/Arabic full-text search engine. The latter tools were used for the Global Arabic Encyclopedia and various other multimedia projects.

Recently, developed TilerPro which is a web-based software for construction of symmetric curves and their utilization in the design of aesthetic tiles. For more information, visit Tiler website.

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Comments and Discussions

Questionproblem Pin
Member 117817633-Dec-16 6:39
memberMember 117817633-Dec-16 6:39 
Questioncode download not there Pin
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GeneralRe: My vote of 2 Pin
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memberNasir Darwish6-Nov-15 21:34 
GeneralRe: My vote of 2 Pin
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GeneralMy vote of 5 Pin
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memberHumayun Kabir Mamun8-Nov-13 0:06 

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