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Posted 18 Aug 2010


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Select N+1 Problem – How to Decrease Your ORM Performance

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18 Aug 2010CPOL3 min read
This post will introduce the select N+1 pitfall and explain how to avoid it in Entity Framework.

Today one of the developers at my main customer showed me a code snippet he wrote against Entity Framework and made me very pale. The code included the horrible select N+1 problem. This post will introduce the select N+1 pitfall and will explain how to avoid it in Entity Framework.

What is Select N+1 Problem?

ORMs can help you to address the impedance mismatch between relational databases and object oriented models and by that make your life simpler. But not knowing about some of their pitfalls can decrease your performance dramatically. One of those pitfalls is the select N+1 problem. This problem is being caused mainly because most of the ORMs out there are enabling lazy loading behavior by default. When we have a parent-children relation, the problem can raise its ugly head. The problem is happening when we are executing a single query and then N following queries (N is the number of parent entities) in order to query for something. As you can expect, doing N+1 queries instead of a single one will flood your database with queries that we can and should avoid. This is very unacceptable.

Select N+1 Example

To explain the problem more properly, let's look at an example. Let's say that we have the following model:

Entity Designer Diagram

A department can hold 0 or more courses (a typical parent-children relation). Since EF4 enables the lazy loading behavior by default, then the following code will raise the select N+1 problem:

using (var context = new SchoolEntities())
  foreach (var department in context.Departments)
    foreach (var course in department.Courses)
      Console.WriteLine("{0}: {1}", department.Name, course.Title);

And the result is:

Running Output

All I wanted to do is to write to the output the titles of the courses and attach to them their parent department name. In the database, I got one query to retrieve all the departments and then N queries to retrieve each and every one of the courses for that department. Since in my database there are only 4 departments, then I got 5 queries (1 for departments and 4 for all the courses for each department). Now in real world scenario when there are many parents… you can figure the amount of queries you’ll be generating without even knowing you did that.

How to Avoid the Problem in Entity Framework?

One of the main solutions to the select N+1 problem in Entity Framework is to use the Include method. The Include method is making an eager load for the children that you indicate to it. You give the method a path of all the children you like to load in the query (as long as you have a relation between the entities) and one query will be generated to bring back all the relevant entities. This isn’t a bullet proof solution! There are serious implications that you should understand when you use the Include method. The main implication is that it is doing a join between all the tables that you want to return and the data is retrieved in a flatten manner in order to materialize all the entities from it. Also the materialization process when having a lot of included entities can cause a downgrade of performance. So you will have to weigh the balance between using Include or lazy loading. The following code will generate the same results as in the above figure but with only one query:

using (var context = new SchoolEntities())
  foreach (var department in context.Departments.Include("Courses"))
    foreach (var course in department.Courses)
      Console.WriteLine("{0}: {1}", department.Name, course.Title);

and take a look at the generated query:

SELECT   [Project1].[DepartmentID]  AS [DepartmentID],
         [Project1].[Name]          AS [Name],
         [Project1].[Budget]        AS [Budget],
         [Project1].[StartDate]     AS [StartDate],
         [Project1].[Administrator] AS [Administrator],
         [Project1].[C1]            AS [C1],
         [Project1].[CourseID]      AS [CourseID],
         [Project1].[Title]         AS [Title],
         [Project1].[Days]          AS [Days],
         [Project1].[Time]          AS [Time],
         [Project1].[Location]      AS [Location],
         [Project1].[Credits]       AS [Credits],
         [Project1].[DepartmentID1] AS [DepartmentID1]
FROM     (SELECT [Extent1].[DepartmentID]  AS [DepartmentID],
                 [Extent1].[Name]          AS [Name],
                 [Extent1].[Budget]        AS [Budget],
                 [Extent1].[StartDate]     AS [StartDate],
                 [Extent1].[Administrator] AS [Administrator],
                 [Extent2].[CourseID]      AS [CourseID],
                 [Extent2].[Title]         AS [Title],
                 [Extent2].[Days]          AS [Days],
                 [Extent2].[Time]          AS [Time],
                 [Extent2].[Location]      AS [Location],
                 [Extent2].[Credits]       AS [Credits],
                 [Extent2].[DepartmentID]  AS [DepartmentID1],
                   WHEN ([Extent2].[CourseID] IS NULL) THEN CAST(NULL AS int)
                   ELSE 1
                 END AS [C1]
          FROM   [dbo].[Department] AS [Extent1]
                 LEFT OUTER JOIN [dbo].[Course] AS [Extent2]
                   ON [Extent1].[DepartmentID] = [Extent2].[DepartmentID]) AS [Project1]
ORDER BY [Project1].[DepartmentID] ASC,
         [Project1].[C1] ASC


There are pitfalls when we are using ORMs and one of them is the select N+1 problem. This isn’t a problem of Entity Framework only. This problem exists in other ORMs like NHibernate, LINQ to SQL and more. You should be aware of those problems when you develop with ORMs and avoid them whenever it is possible. One way to do that is the Include method in Entity Framework but this solution can also generate problems.


This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)


About the Author

Gil Fink
Technical Lead sparXys
Israel Israel
Gil Fink is a web development expert and ASP.Net/IIS Microsoft MVP. He is the founder and owner of sparXys. He is currently consulting for various enterprises and companies, where he helps to develop Web and RIA-based solutions. He conducts lectures and workshops for individuals and enterprises who want to specialize in infrastructure and web development. He is also co-author of several Microsoft Official Courses (MOCs) and training kits, co-author of "Pro Single Page Application Development" book (Apress) and the founder of Front-End.IL Meetup. You can read his publications at his website:

Comments and Discussions

QuestionThanks for simple on point explanation Pin
Musa Kasım6-Nov-18 13:51
professionalMusa Kasım6-Nov-18 13:51 
QuestionNo proper solution provided Pin
Member 912997113-May-15 8:41
MemberMember 912997113-May-15 8:41 
QuestionMy vote of 5 Pin
Nguyen Quy Minh10-Nov-14 23:40
MemberNguyen Quy Minh10-Nov-14 23:40 
AnswerRe: My vote of 5 Pin
Gil Fink11-Nov-14 1:33
MemberGil Fink11-Nov-14 1:33 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pin
Jesús López Méndez21-Aug-14 2:26
MemberJesús López Méndez21-Aug-14 2:26 
GeneralRe: My vote of 5 Pin
Gil Fink21-Aug-14 2:54
MemberGil Fink21-Aug-14 2:54 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pin
Sampath Lokuge14-Mar-14 1:23
MemberSampath Lokuge14-Mar-14 1:23 
GeneralRe: My vote of 5 Pin
Gil Fink12-Apr-14 0:30
MemberGil Fink12-Apr-14 0:30 

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