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Posted 19 Feb 2018

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ReInventing Neural Networks - Part 3

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20 Feb 2018CPOL3 min read
Now that we got the basics over with, it's time for improvement!

The Full Series

  • Part 1: We create the whole NeuralNetwork class from scratch.
  • Part 2: We create an environment in Unity in order to test the neural network within that environment.
  • Part 3: We make a great improvement to the neural network already created by adding a new type of mutation to the code.

Introduction

Before I start, I got to acknowledge that I'm 16 years old, because I kinda noticed people get hiccups when they know that, so I thought... maybe if people knew, I would get something more out of it. Just sayin.

Welcome Back Fellas! About a month ago, I got Part 2 of this series posted. After that, I got really caught up doing a bunch of other stuff which couldn't let me continue doing what I really want to do (Sorry about that). However, a few days ago, Michael Bartlett sent me an email asking about a GA operator called safe mutation (or SA for short) (referring to this paper).

Background

To follow along this article, you'll need to have basic C# and Unity programming knowledge. Also you're going to need to have read Part 1 and Part 2 of this series.

Understanding the Theory

According to the paper sent by Michael, it appears that there are two types of SM operators:

  1. Safe Mutation through Rescaling: In a nutshell, that's just like tuning the weight a bit to know how much this bit affects the output, and according to that, make an informed mutation.
  2. Safe Mutation through Gradients: That's a similar approach to the one used in backpropagation to get the gradient of each weight, and according to that, also make an informed mutation.

That still, however didn't give me enough information to start coding, so I kept looking till I found this paper. This paper shows how great of an improvement you can get if you just use some of the information that's right in front of you. If you check Figure 4 in that paper, you can see that unbiased mutation gives the worst results, while node mutation gives exponentially better results! Heck yeah, it even matches crossover!

Image 1 Image 2

It's even compared with safe mutation (through gradients) and backpropagation on figures 7 and 8. It's either a tie with safe mutation, and node mutation crushes backpropagation...

Image 3 Image 4

Ok then... So what's that magical "Mutate Nodes" operator? Well... normal mutation just kinda selects some weights and mutates them as follows:

Image 5

However, node mutation selects a few nodes and mutates all of the weights coming to it:

Image 6

Using the Code

Well, the code is pretty straight forward. First, add the MutateNodes function to the NeuralSection class:

/// <summary>
/// Mutate the NeuralSection's Nodes.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="MutationProbablity">The probability that a node is going
/// to be mutated. (Ranges 0-1)</param>
/// <param name="MutationAmount">The maximum amount
/// a Mutated Weight would change.</param>
public void MutateNodes(double MutationProbablity, double MutationAmount)
{
    for (int j = 0; j < Weights[0].Length; j++)              // For each output node
    {
        if (TheRandomizer.NextDouble() < MutationProbablity) // Check if we are going
                                                             // to mutate this node
        {
            for (int i = 0; i < Weights.Length; i++)         // For each input node
                                                             // connected to the
                                                             // current output node
            {
                Weights[i][j] = TheRandomizer.NextDouble() *
                                (MutationAmount * 2) - MutationAmount; // Mutate the
                                                       // weight connecting both nodes
            }
        }
    }
}

Then, add the caller function to the NeuralNetwork class:

/// <summary>
/// Mutate the NeuralNetwork's Nodes.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="MutationProbablity">The probability that a node
/// is going to be mutated. (Ranges 0-1)</param>
/// <param name="MutationAmount">
/// The maximum amount a Mutated Weight would change.</param>
public void MutateNodes(double MutationProbablity = 0.3, double MutationAmount = 2.0)
{
    // Mutate each section
    for (int i = 0; i < Sections.Length; i++)
    {
        Sections[i].MutateNodes(MutationProbablity, MutationAmount);
    }
}

This is pretty much it! That's how the NeuralNetwork.cs should look now:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Collections.ObjectModel;

public class NeuralNetwork
{
    public UInt32[] Topology // Returns the topology in the form of an array
    {
        get
        {
            UInt32[] Result = new UInt32[TheTopology.Count];

            TheTopology.CopyTo(Result, 0);

            return Result;
        }
    }

    ReadOnlyCollection<UInt32> TheTopology; // Contains the topology of the NeuralNetwork
    NeuralSection[] Sections;               // Contains the all the sections of the NeuralNetwork

    Random TheRandomizer;                   // It is the Random instance used 
                                            // to mutate the NeuralNetwork

    private class NeuralSection
    {
        private double[][] Weights;         // Contains all the weights of the section  
                                            // where [i][j] represents the weight from 
                                            // neuron i in the input layer and neuron j 
                                            // in the output layer

        private Random TheRandomizer;       // Contains a reference to the Random instance 
                                            // of the NeuralNetwork

        /// <summary>
        /// Initiate a NeuralSection from a topology and a seed.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="InputCount">The number of input neurons in the section.</param>
        /// <param name="OutputCount">The number of output neurons in the section.</param>
        /// <param name="Randomizer">The Ransom instance of the NeuralNetwork.</param>
        public NeuralSection(UInt32 InputCount, UInt32 OutputCount, Random Randomizer)
        {
            // Validation Checks
            if (InputCount == 0)
                throw new ArgumentException("You cannot create a Neural Layer 
                                             with no input neurons.", "InputCount");
            else if (OutputCount == 0)
                throw new ArgumentException("You cannot create a Neural Layer 
                                             with no output neurons.", "OutputCount");
            else if (Randomizer == null)
                throw new ArgumentException("The randomizer cannot be set to null.", 
                                            "Randomizer");

            // Set Randomizer
            TheRandomizer = Randomizer;

            // Initialize the Weights array
            Weights = new double[InputCount + 1][]; // +1 for the Bias Neuron

            for (int i = 0; i < Weights.Length; i++)
                Weights[i] = new double[OutputCount];

            // Set random weights
            for (int i = 0; i < Weights.Length; i++)
                for (int j = 0; j < Weights[i].Length; j++)
                    Weights[i][j] = TheRandomizer.NextDouble() - 0.5f;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Initiates an independent Deep-Copy of the NeuralSection provided.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="Main">The NeuralSection that should be cloned.</param>
        public NeuralSection(NeuralSection Main)
        {
            // Set Randomizer
            TheRandomizer = Main.TheRandomizer;

            // Initialize Weights
            Weights = new double[Main.Weights.Length][];

            for (int i = 0; i < Weights.Length; i++)
                Weights[i] = new double[Main.Weights[0].Length];

            // Set Weights
            for (int i = 0; i < Weights.Length; i++)
            {
                for (int j = 0; j < Weights[i].Length; j++)
                {
                    Weights[i][j] = Main.Weights[i][j];
                }
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Feed input through the NeuralSection and get the output.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="Input">The values to set the input neurons.</param>
        /// <returns>The values in the output neurons after propagation.</returns>
        public double[] FeedForward(double[] Input)
        {
            // Validation Checks
            if (Input == null)
                throw new ArgumentException("The input array cannot be set to null.", "Input");
            else if (Input.Length != Weights.Length - 1)
                throw new ArgumentException
                ("The input array's length does not match the number of neurons 
                  in the input layer.", "Input");

            // Initialize Output Array
            double[] Output = new double[Weights[0].Length];

            // Calculate Value
            for (int i = 0; i < Weights.Length; i++)
            {
                for (int j = 0; j < Weights[i].Length; j++)
                {
                    if (i == Weights.Length - 1)    // If is Bias Neuron
                        Output[j] += Weights[i][j]; // Then, the value of the neuron 
                                                    // is equal to one
                    else
                        Output[j] += Weights[i][j] * Input[i];
                }
            }

            // Apply Activation Function
            for (int i = 0; i < Output.Length; i++)
                Output[i] = ReLU(Output[i]);

            // Return Output
            return Output;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Mutate the NeuralSection.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="MutationProbablity">The probability that a weight 
        /// is going to be mutated. (Ranges 0-1)</param>
        /// <param name="MutationAmount">The maximum amount a Mutated Weight 
        /// would change.</param>
        public void Mutate(double MutationProbablity, double MutationAmount)
        {
            for (int i = 0; i < Weights.Length; i++)
            {
                for (int j = 0; j < Weights[i].Length; j++)
                {
                    if (TheRandomizer.NextDouble() < MutationProbablity)
                        Weights[i][j] = TheRandomizer.NextDouble() * 
                                        (MutationAmount * 2) - MutationAmount;
                }
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Mutate the NeuralSection's Nodes.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="MutationProbablity">The probability that a node 
        /// is going to be mutated. (Ranges 0-1)</param>
        /// <param name="MutationAmount">The maximum amount a Mutated Weight 
        /// would change.</param>
        public void MutateNodes(double MutationProbablity, double MutationAmount)
        {
            for (int j = 0; j < Weights[0].Length; j++) // For each output node
            {
                if (TheRandomizer.NextDouble() < MutationProbablity) // Check if we are 
                                                             // going to mutate this node
                {
                    for (int i = 0; i < Weights.Length; i++) // For each input node 
                                                             // connected to the current 
                                                             // output node
                    {
                        Weights[i][j] = TheRandomizer.NextDouble() * 
                        (MutationAmount * 2) - MutationAmount; // Mutate the weight 
                                                               // connecting both nodes
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Puts a double through the activation function ReLU.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="x">The value to put through the function.</param>
        /// <returns>x after it is put through ReLU.</returns>
        private double ReLU(double x)
        {
            if (x >= 0)
                return x;
            else
                return x / 20;
        }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Initiates a NeuralNetwork from a Topology and a Seed.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="Topology">The Topology of the Neural Network.</param>
    /// <param name="Seed">The Seed of the Neural Network. 
    /// Set to 'null' to use a Timed Seed.</param>
    public NeuralNetwork(UInt32[] Topology, Int32? Seed = 0)
    {
        // Validation Checks
        if (Topology.Length < 2)
            throw new ArgumentException("A Neural Network cannot contain 
                                         less than 2 Layers.", "Topology");

        for (int i = 0; i < Topology.Length; i++)
        {
            if (Topology[i] < 1)
                throw new ArgumentException("A single layer of neurons must contain, 
                                             at least, one neuron.", "Topology");
        }

        // Initialize Randomizer
        if (Seed.HasValue)
            TheRandomizer = new Random(Seed.Value);
        else
            TheRandomizer = new Random();

        // Set Topology
        TheTopology = new List<uint>(Topology).AsReadOnly();

        // Initialize Sections
        Sections = new NeuralSection[TheTopology.Count - 1];

        // Set the Sections
        for (int i = 0; i < Sections.Length; i++)
        {
            Sections[i] = new NeuralSection
                          (TheTopology[i], TheTopology[i + 1], TheRandomizer);
        }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Initiates an independent Deep-Copy of the Neural Network provided.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="Main">The Neural Network that should be cloned.</param>
    public NeuralNetwork(NeuralNetwork Main)
    {
        // Initialize Randomizer
        TheRandomizer = new Random(Main.TheRandomizer.Next());

        // Set Topology
        TheTopology = Main.TheTopology;

        // Initialize Sections
        Sections = new NeuralSection[TheTopology.Count - 1];

        // Set the Sections
        for (int i = 0; i < Sections.Length; i++)
        {
            Sections[i] = new NeuralSection(Main.Sections[i]);
        }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Feed Input through the NeuralNetwork and Get the Output.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="Input">The values to set the Input Neurons.</param>
    /// <returns>The values in the output neurons after propagation.</returns>
    public double[] FeedForward(double[] Input)
    {
        // Validation Checks
        if (Input == null)
            throw new ArgumentException("The input array cannot be set to null.", "Input");
        else if (Input.Length != TheTopology[0])
            throw new ArgumentException("The input array's length does not match 
                  the number of neurons in the input layer.", "Input");

        double[] Output = Input;

        // Feed values through all sections
        for (int i = 0; i < Sections.Length; i++)
        {
            Output = Sections[i].FeedForward(Output);
        }

        return Output;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Mutate the NeuralNetwork.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="MutationProbablity">The probability that a weight 
    /// is going to be mutated. (Ranges 0-1)</param>
    /// <param name="MutationAmount">The maximum amount a mutated weight would change.</param>
    public void Mutate(double MutationProbablity = 0.3, double MutationAmount = 2.0)
    {
        // Mutate each section
        for (int i = 0; i < Sections.Length; i++)
        {
            Sections[i].Mutate(MutationProbablity, MutationAmount);
        }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Mutate the NeuralNetwork's Nodes.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="MutationProbablity">The probability that a node 
    /// is going to be mutated. (Ranges 0-1)</param>
    /// <param name="MutationAmount">The maximum amount a Mutated Weight would change.</param>
    public void MutateNodes(double MutationProbablity = 0.3, double MutationAmount = 2.0)
    {
        // Mutate each section
        for (int i = 0; i < Sections.Length; i++)
        {
            Sections[i].MutateNodes(MutationProbablity, MutationAmount);
        }
    }
}

And... No I'm not gonna leave you like that. Now it's time to make tiny little changes to the cars demo made in Unity previously, so that we can see the difference for ourselves. Let's first go to EvolutionManager.cs in our Unity project and add this variable at the beginning of the script:

[SerializeField] bool UseNodeMutation = true; // Should we use node mutation?

Let's also put this variable to use by replacing the call to Car.NextNetwork.Mutate() inside the StartGeneration() function with that:

if(UseNodeMutation)                // Should we use Node Mutation
    Car.NextNetwork.MutateNodes(); // Mutate its nodes
else
    Car.NextNetwork.Mutate();      // Mutate its weights

This way, EvolutionManager.cs should end up looking like that:

using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using UnityEngine;
using UnityEngine.UI;

public class EvolutionManager : MonoBehaviour
{
    public static EvolutionManager Singleton = null; // The current EvolutionManager Instance

    [SerializeField] bool UseNodeMutation = true;    // Should we use node mutation?

    [SerializeField] int CarCount = 100;             // The number of cars per generation
    [SerializeField] GameObject CarPrefab;           // The Prefab of the car to be created 
                                                     // for each instance
    [SerializeField] Text GenerationNumberText;      // Some text to write the generation number

    int GenerationCount = 0;                         // The current generation number

    List<Car> Cars = new List<Car>();                // This list of cars currently alive

    NeuralNetwork BestNeuralNetwork = null;          // The best NeuralNetwork 
                                                     // currently available
    int BestFitness = -1;                            // The FItness of the best 
                                                     // NeuralNetwork ever created
    
    // On Start
    private void Start()
    {
        if (Singleton == null)             // If no other instances were created
            Singleton = this;              // Make the only instance this one
        else
            gameObject.SetActive(false);   // There is another instance already in place. 
                                           // Make this one inactive.

        BestNeuralNetwork = new NeuralNetwork(Car.NextNetwork); // Set the BestNeuralNetwork
                                                                // to a random new network

        StartGeneration(); 
    }

    // Sarts a whole new generation
    void StartGeneration ()
    {
        GenerationCount++; // Increment the generation count
        GenerationNumberText.text = "Generation: " + 
                                     GenerationCount; // Update generation text

        for (int i = 0; i < CarCount; i++)
        {
            if (i == 0)
                Car.NextNetwork = BestNeuralNetwork; // Make sure one car uses the best network
            else
            {
                Car.NextNetwork = new NeuralNetwork(BestNeuralNetwork); // Clone the best 
                                        // neural network and set it to be for the next car
                if(UseNodeMutation)     // Should we use Node Mutation
                    Car.NextNetwork.MutateNodes(); // Mutate its nodes
                else
                    Car.NextNetwork.Mutate();      // Mutate its weights
            }

            Cars.Add(Instantiate(CarPrefab, transform.position, 
                     Quaternion.identity, transform).GetComponent<Car>()); // Instantiate 
                                                   // a new car and add it to the list of cars
        }
    }

    // Gets called by cars when they die
    public void CarDead (Car DeadCar, int Fitness)
    {
        Cars.Remove(DeadCar); // Remove the car from the list
        Destroy(DeadCar.gameObject); // Destroy the dead car

        if (Fitness > BestFitness) // If it is better that the current best car
        {
            BestNeuralNetwork = DeadCar.TheNetwork; // Make sure it becomes the best car
            BestFitness = Fitness; // And also set the best fitness
        }

        if (Cars.Count <= 0)       // If there are no cars left
            StartGeneration();     // Create a new generation
    }
}

After stirring it all up and hitting play, you get this:

Points of Interest

It was fantastic to see such a great improvement from the last article in the training just by making a really simple addition. Now that we've got some improvement, it's your turn to tell me what you think about all this. And what do you think I should do next? And, should I make youtube videos regarding AI and stuff like that, or should I stick with articles?

History

  • Version 1.0: Main implementation

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)

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About the Author

Byte-Master-101
Student
Egypt Egypt
Hello, I'm a programmer by day, and a Jedi Ninja by night! I mean... I like programming Neural Networks. I'm kinda experienced with C#, JavaScript, MySQL, Network Programming, Unity Game Programming and a bit of C++. I also tried out freelancing for a few months, and it worked well. If anybody wants to talk to me, you can contact me on email(mokhtar.mohammed.red@gmail.com) or on Skype(mokhtar.mohammed.red@gmail.com).

Comments and Discussions

 
QuestionNo new, improved video? Pin
asiwel21-Feb-18 18:41
professionalasiwel21-Feb-18 18:41 
AnswerRe: No new, improved video? Pin
Byte-Master-1015-Mar-18 1:00
MemberByte-Master-1015-Mar-18 1:00 
GeneralNice new video Pin
asiwel5-Mar-18 5:35
professionalasiwel5-Mar-18 5:35 
GeneralRe: Nice new video Pin
Byte-Master-1015-Mar-18 7:21
MemberByte-Master-1015-Mar-18 7:21 

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