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Posted 5 Dec 2006

Concurrent model in ADO.NET, ways that allow to negotiate disconnected model restrictions for Oracle databases

, 5 Dec 2006
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Using ADO.NET conrurrent model in Oracle databases.


The most popular instrument to access database data for .NET applications is ADO.NET. This set of components contains three main classes those are used to manipulate and store data: DataReader, DataSet, and DataAdapter. DataReader is only able to read data and can't work as data source for data-aware components like DataGridView etc.; DataSet provides all interfaces to be a data source but the disconnected model has some restrictions that can become important for some kind of applications, especially for desktop programs that work under a multi-user concurrent environment and change database data actively. Below we consider main restrictions and popular ways to solve them; non standard solutions is considered also.


All code samples are intended for Microsoft Visual Studio 2005; as database, we have used Oracle 10i and Oracle Development Tools (ODT.NET) to generate sample code to access data, the latest version is available here here, but the main principles that are shown are also suitable for other RDBMSs.

Concurrent model

One of the serious problems of ADO.NET is the concurrent model; it's not a secret that ADO.NET uses optimistic concurrency. The disconnected nature of the DataSet makes it quite powerful. However, optimistic concurrency can lead to problems, as in the case of frequent data updates. Optimistic concurrency means that you assume no one will be making edits to a record while you are making your edits. Because you are "optimistic" that two people will not edit the same record simultaneously, you do not apply a lock to the record as soon as a user starts to edit it. Instead, you apply the lock only when the actual update is attempted.

To check for optimistic concurrency violations, the Data Adapter Configuration Wizard writes SQL statements that verify that the record you are about to update or delete has not changed since you originally loaded it into your DataSet. The Wizard does this by adding a rather large WHERE clause to the SQL statement to verify that it is updating or deleting an exact match of what was downloaded and placed in the DataSet.

In our samples, we have used a simple table named "COLORS".

create table COLORS
  COLOR_ID   NUMBER not null,
  COLOR_NAME  varchar2(100) not null,
  RED      number not null,
  GREEN number not null,
  BLUE number not null,

--fill table-------------
insert into colors(color_id, color_name, red, 
       green, blue) values(1, 'black', 0, 0, 0);
insert into colors(color_id, color_name, red, 
       green, blue) values(2, 'white', 254, 254, 254);
insert into colors(color_id, color_name, red, 
       green, blue) values(3, 'red', 254, 0, 0);
insert into colors(color_id, color_name, red, 
       green, blue) values(4, 'green', 0, 254, 0);
insert into colors(color_id, color_name, red, 
       green, blue) values(5, 'blue', 0, 0, 254);
insert into colors(color_id, color_name, red, 
       green, blue) values(6, 'yellow', 0, 254, 254);

To generate the program, simply drag the table "COLORS" from the OracleExplorer panel that is part of the ODT.NET tool and drop it on the application form (fig. 1).


Fig. 1.

The Wizard generates automatically OracleDataAdapter and OracleConnection so we should add an untyped DataSet, and a DataGridView manually as well as a Button to post changes in the database, and a few lines of code to make our program work:

public Form1()
   colorsOracleDataAdapter1.Fill(dataSet1, "COLORS");
   dataGridView1.DataSource = dataSet1.Tables["COLORS"];

private void button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
                colorsOracleDataAdapter1.Update(dataSet1, "Colors");
                //Display confirmation message
                MessageBox.Show("Changes saved successfully !");                
        catch (Exception ex)
             MessageBox.Show(ex.ToString(), "Exception Occured");

Now we can see how the update SQL that is generated by the wizard looks like. The update command text:

       "RED"=:current_RED_param2, "GREEN"=:current_GREEN_param3, 
       "BLUE"=:current_BLUE_param4 WHERE 
       "COLOR_ID"=:original_COLOR_ID_param5 AND 
       "COLOR_NAME"=:original_COLOR_NAME_param6 AND 
       "RED"=:original_RED_param7 AND 
       "GREEN"=:original_GREEN_param8 AND 

The default behavior of the Data Adapter Configuration Wizard is to include all the columns in the WHERE clause. This prevents your code from overwriting changes made by other users between the time your code retrieves the row and the time your code attempts to submit the pending change in the row. Because the value of another user's updated column for a row of data has changed in the database, no row in the table satisfies all the criteria in the query's WHERE clause. Thus, the database does not modify the row.

This update query works, but obviously it can't be optimal, because the RDBMS has to select non-indexed parameters. So it is suitable for small tables like our "COLORS" table, but for real tables that contain a significant number of rows, this query can slow down the database.

We should modify this query and make some optimization. As a variant, we can include only the primary columns in the SQL UPDATE queries:

   WHERE "COLOR_ID"=:original_COLOR_ID_param5

This creates a "last in wins" updating scenario. Both update attempts will succeed. Obviously, the database is not going to maintain both sets of changes. The changes made by the last update will override the previous changes. The "last in wins" scenario is not appropriate if you want to prevent users from unwittingly overwriting other users' changes.

Anyway, we can improve this situation and add timestamp columns to the "COLORS" table and include the Primary Key and timestamp columns in the WHERE clause:

alter table COLORS add TIMESTAMP date;

Also, we should create a trigger after the insert or update to generate a new value in this column:

create or replace trigger TBIU_COLORS
  before insert or update on COLORS
  for each row
  select sysdate into :new.timestamp from dual;

And create the index to optimize the query:

create index INDX_COLORS_ID_STAMP on COLORS (color_id, timestamp);

Any time the contents of a row changes, SQL Server will modify the value of the timestamp column for that row. We make our query look like this:

       WHERE "COLOR_ID"=:original_COLOR_ID_param5 and 

Because the server will generate a new value for the timestamp column each time it updates a row, you can use a combination of the primary key and timestamp columns in the WHERE clause of your query-based updates to ensure that you don't overwrite another user's changes. The disadvantage of this method is the necessity to do the extra job, especially if you have to work with the existing database and all the tables were made without a timestamp column and hold extra data in your database.

As we can see, we can choose one of these ways to use in our ADO.NET applications. A big plus of those methods is universality, but universality doesn't mean optimality and convenience, and of course it's not a cure for all. Except individual disadvantages for each method, there are common disadvantages:

  1. if you add a column in the table "COLORS", you should make changes in your UPDATE statement manually and recompile the application;
  2. each time, the application must update the entire row even if you have changed only one column value.

Using RDBMS specific mechanisms to handle optimistic concurrency violations

Each database has a mechanism that maintains different concurrent models. The important part of this mechanism is record locking. The moment you lock a database record, consider the type of concurrency: optimistic or pessimistic. If you apply lock to a record as soon as a user has started to edit it, it is pessimistic concurrency and all other users can't change this record until the first user has finished editing it and posted the changes to the database. If you apply the lock as record only when the actual update is attempted, it is optimistic concurrency. Using the ADO.NET DataSet and DataAdatper, we have no choice, you can use only optimistic variant, but the realization of the one is far away from ideal.

OK, but what looks like the 'right' realization? The main scenario of optimistic concurrency:

  1. User has changed a record and tries to post changes in the database.
  2. Application tries to execute "select for update" for the current record. If record is locked by another user, the first one gets concurrency violation.
  3. If record is unlocked, the application checks if the record was changed by another user. If the record was changed, the application informs the user about it and offers to overwrite or cancel the posted record.
  4. If the record is unchanged, or the user decides to overwrite it, the application updates only columns that were changed by the current user.
  5. Application executes "commit" if changes were made successfully, or "rollback" if operation failed to unlock the current record.

"Select for update" is a very important part, because in an Oracle database, the user doesn't see changes made by another user until a "commit" is made, but since we have executed "select for update" for some records, Oracle will throw the appropriate exception if another user tries to change it.

Thank god, Oracle has a unique identifier for each table named ROWID so we can use it as a universal row identifier in any program. To realize the optimistic model for the Oracle database, first we should change CommandText of UpdateCommand as is shown below:

       WHERE "ROWID"=:original_ROWID_param5.

Also, we should delete parameters higher than four, and add a new one that has the type Varchar2 (see fig. 2 below).


Fig. 2.

Then we should write a RowUpdating event handler for OracleDataAdapter1.

private void colorsOracleDataAdapter1_RowUpdating(object sender, 
        Oracle.DataAccess.Client.OracleRowUpdatingEventArgs e)
            OracleCommand oracleDMLCommand = null;
            OracleDataReader oracleDataReader = null;
            if (e.StatementType != StatementType.Update)
                //clear row erros
                //create command
                oracleDMLCommand = colorsOracleConnection1.CreateCommand();
                oracleDMLCommand.CommandType = CommandType.Text;
                //select for update nowait
                oracleDMLCommand.CommandText = "select * from colors c where
                        c.rowid= :cur_rowid for update nowait";
                e.Row["ROWID"].ToString(), ParameterDirection.Input);
                //execute command
                oracleDataReader = oracleDMLCommand.ExecuteReader();
                //read data from database reader
                while (oracleDataReader.Read())
                    //iterate all fields from datareader
                    for (int i = 0; i < oracleDataReader.FieldCount; i++)
                        //compare original data in column with data from
                        // database
                        if (e.Row[oracleDataReader.GetName(i), 
                            DataRowVersion.Original].ToString() !=
                            //We found a difference, inform user about it
                            //and offer to overwrite record
                            if (DialogResult.Cancel == MessageBox.Show("Row 
                                 was changed by another user, rewrite anyway?",
                                 "Warning", MessageBoxButtons.OKCancel, 
                                 throw new Exception("Row was changed 
                                 by another user");

            catch (OracleException ee)
               //set row error
               e.Row.SetColumnError("COLOR_ID", ee.ToString());
               throw ee;
            catch (Exception ex)
               //set row error
               e.Row.SetColumnError("COLOR_ID", ex.ToString());             
               throw ex;
               if(oracleDataReader !=  null)
               if (oracleDMLCommand != null)

OracleDataAdapter executes the "commit" command automatically after the update command so we shouldn't worry about it. It's not the ideal solution but at least it checks if the record is locked, checks if it was changed by another user, and allows the user to overwrite the new record if necessary.


To test our application, we can use the SQLPlus application. When the application is started, the window like in fig. 3 appears.


Fig. 3.

Then connect as scott/tiger using SQLPlus, and execute the command:

select * from colors where color_id=1 for update nowait;

Then I can try to change some data using our application: for example, I change the red column from 0 to 5. When I try to post changes; I get: ORA-00054: resource busy and acquire with NOWAIT specified. OK, using SQLPlus, I execute the following command:

update colors set red=1 where color_id=1;

So I change the data row and commit the changes. Now this record should be ready for modifications. I try to post changes using our application:


Fig. 4.

So now I see that the record is ready for modifications and it was changed by another user (fig. 4). I decided to rewrite it and push OK, but of course can cancel. If you select data from this table, you can see that this row was changed by our application and concurrency violation was handled correctly.

As was shown here, handling optimistic concurrency violations gracefully can be done with some coding effort.

ADO.NET problems concerning concurrent models can be solved by another way. Obviously, one can write visual components that would be able to set suitable concurrent models, which are not only optimistic and like the DataSet, be the data source for data-aware components.


Snotra Tech Oracle Data Components for .NET

For our third sample we have used Snotra Tech Oracle Data Components for .NET that contain the STOraDataTable component. Unlike DataTable, it is connected dataset and it checks all oracle constraints "on the fly" and posts all changes, those are have made by user in database automatically, so we shouldn't call command like colorsOracleDataAdapter1.Update. Component allows both pessimistic and optimistic concurrency and offer a good Oracle specific realization of them. When user has made some changes in DataGrid and is going to another row, STOraDataTable validates data and posts changes to database. Unlike DataAdapter it posts only columns those were changed by user. You can download Snotra Tech Oracle Data Components from here,5 MB). Close Visual Studio environment and install it. It takes or as well as Oracle client installed on your PC.

After installation SNOC.NET tab should appear on Visual Studio Toolbar (fig 5).


Fig. 5.

To make a simple application, drop STOracleConnection and STOraDataTable to application form. DataGridView also should be on form.

STOracleConnection takes connection string so write this string as it shown on fig.6.


Fig. 6.

STOraDataTable also takes some options should be defined. See fig. 7.


Fig. 7.

Here on need to set up correctly 4 properties:
BindingControl property allows STOraDataTable to control DataGridView and user can't leave record if it contains some errors.
SQL property allows STOraDataTable from where to select data, all other SQLs (insert, update, delete) component generates automatically.
STOracleConnection property sets oracle connection component.
ThrowException property defines exception propagation. If oracle error occurred and ThrowException is false, exception will be handled by STOraDataTable only.

OK, put also three lines of code and application is ready to start:

public Form1()
       dataGridView1.DataSource = stOraDataTable1;

Let's see how to set suitable concurrent model using STOraDataTable component.
STOraDataTable has property named LockingMode that can be on of 4 variants:

  1. CheckImmediate. When the user starts editing a record, it is locked and a check is performed to see if it has been changed. The lock remains until the user posts or cancels the changes.
  2. LockDelayed. When the user starts editing a record, a check is performed to see if it has been changed, but the record is not locked. Therefore, when the user posts the record, it is locked and checked again.
  3. LockImmediate. When the user posts an edited record, it is locked and a check is performed to see if it has been changed. After this, the lock is released.
  4. None. No locking or checks are performed. This should only be used in single user applications.

By default LockingMode is set to CheckImmediate and this mode works similar to our last realisation of optimistic concurrency. But here you have a good choise and realisation that is very suitable for Oracle database.


Points of Interest

I came to .NET from Delphi and was a bit frustrated with the possibilities that disconnected ADO.NET components offer, so I decided to write my own solution that allows to use concurrent models that I need and some other extra features like single record refreshing, partial data selection, and so on.



To write effective SQL code, we suggest do not make a cure all and the solution that we offer nowadays is suitable for Oracle database only, but this restriction is temporary. Snotra Tech Oracle Data Components is shareware licensed, but we have a number of free licenses and ready to deliver this soft for interested persons for free. We welcome any suggestions and opinions and glad to answers your questions in our forum: or by mail:



This article has no explicit license attached to it but may contain usage terms in the article text or the download files themselves. If in doubt please contact the author via the discussion board below.

A list of licenses authors might use can be found here


About the Author

Michael Milonov
Web Developer
Russian Federation Russian Federation
I started to write programs 10 years ago and used very different languages. Professionally, I developed systems that work with very large databases, mainly on Oracle. To date, I learned about 15 computer languages. As the moment, I'm in love with C# and the .NET framework, although I widely use Java, C++, Perl, PL/SQL. I prefer don't do user interfaces but like to develop reusable components.
PhD in Computer Science,
CEO of Snotra Tech

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Comments and Discussions

GeneralRow Update Pin
raghavendra .K12-Dec-06 18:24
memberraghavendra .K12-Dec-06 18:24 
GeneralRe: Row Update Pin
Michael Milonov12-Dec-06 21:25
memberMichael Milonov12-Dec-06 21:25 
GeneralWell Written And Well Thought Out Pin
Brian Leach12-Dec-06 5:06
memberBrian Leach12-Dec-06 5:06 
GeneralComplete article text Pin
milonov11-Dec-06 18:57
membermilonov11-Dec-06 18:57 

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