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Posted 5 Mar 2008
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LINQ to Life

, 6 Mar 2008
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Using LINQ to improve everyday code

Queries Aren't Just for Databases Anymore

Believe it or not, LINQ is not just about data access. LINQ makes a profound impact on everyday code. Remember, the days trying to find an element in a list by looping through elements, setting some flag (e.g. found = true;), and calling break to get you out of the loop? Those days are over thanks to LINQ and the powerful features that come along with it including lambda expressions, type inference, and extension methods. This article will use a classic program, Conway’s Game of Life, as a chassis for a LINQ engine. The purpose is to show how writing query expressions adds flexibility, readability, and power to code that is typically full of loops and branches that add to the cyclomatic complexity.

The Rules of the Game

The “Game” itself, is a cellular automaton. The board is a grid, composed of cells. A cell can be on (alive) or off (dead). The state of a cell in any subsequent generation depends on its current state and the state of its neighbors according to a few simple rules:

  1. A living cell will die of loneliness when it has 0 or 1 living neighbors.
  2. A living cell will die of over crowding when it has 4 or more neighbors.
  3. A living cell will survive when it has either 2 or 3 other living neighbors.
  4. A dead cell, will be born when it has exactly 3 living neighbors.

I made a little screen cast that shows the Game in action. Please forgive the choppiness, I couldn't quite get my aging laptop to make a clean capture. However, if you download and run the files, you'll see a smooth display of some of the intricate patterns that can be made simply by following those basic rules. Warning: it’s slightly mesmerizing.

Click here to watch the screen cast.

The Facts of Life

The Cell is Ruled by the Dish

The cells themselves are represented by the class below:

cell class diagram

The Age field keeps track of the number of generations the cell has been “alive”. If the cell has an Age of zero, it’s dead. Normally, you would just keep track of a Boolean flag (e.g. IsAlive). In this particular implementation, we'll keep track of the Age for a rule modification described below.

The Neighbors property, is a little implementation detail that helps cache the list of neighboring cells. It helps calculate things like the NumberOfLivingNeighbors quickly, that fits nicely with the rules.

The Position serves as a unique identifier for the cell itself. Every cell gets a unique integer value for Position that corresponds to the order in which it was added to the list. Essentially, this is the index. An interesting note is that concept of rows and columns in a grid isn't controlled by the cell itself. That honor belongs to the grid itself. In fact, based on the cells position, the grid manages the row/column relationship and tells the cells who its neighbors are.

That grid is represented by a class named PetriDish:

PetriDish Class Diagram

A client (i.e. the GUI) simply news up a dish, giving it a height and width and calls NextGeneration for each frame that it draws. The NextGeneration method runs the actual rules and alters the state of the cells.

For readability, and to match the rules above more closely, the NextGeneration method breaks up the processing into two sections: rules for living cells and rules for dead cells.

Rules for Living Cells

The PetriDish holds on to cells it creates using a simple List<Cell>. Primarily because LINQ loves sequences, specifically anything IEnumerable<T>. On that list, we run LINQ queries to determine from the living cells, who dies and who survives.

/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"><summary></span>
/// Applies the rules to living cells.
/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"></summary></span>
private void ApplyRulesToLivingCells()
    // a living cell can either die or survive
    // a non-living cell can only be born
    var livingCells =
        from c in _cells
        where c.Age > 0
        select c;

    var cellsToKill =
        from c in livingCells
            // loneliness
            c.NumberOfLivingNeighbors <= 1 ||
            // over population
            c.NumberOfLivingNeighbors >= 4
        select c;

    var cellsToKeepAlive =
        from c in livingCells
            c.NumberOfLivingNeighbors  2 ||
            c.NumberOfLivingNeighbors  3
        select c;

    cellsToKill.Each(c => c.LivesInNextGeneration = false);
    cellsToKeepAlive.Each(c => c.LivesInNextGeneration = true);

The first query expression finds all the cells in the list that are alive by filtering on Age > 0. The next two query expressions actually use the livingCells expression to apply Conway’s logic. This is called “query chaining” and makes writing some really complicated queries very readable as it minimizes the needs for joins.

The good news is that the actual source, the list in this case, is only traversed when you start to pull information out of it. That’s big! There are no in-memory traversals, no temporary tables, nothing that consumes anything until you absolutely need it because query expressions work by building expression trees that are only executed against the source when used. This magic is known as deferred execution.

After the rules are defined in cellsToKeepAlive and cellsToKill you can use standard iteration techniques such as foreach, but a more LINQ-y/3.5-ish way to do this is with an extension method and a lambda function like the Each method.

The Each method is something I wrote. Extension methods in general let you “spot weld” methods on classes without using inheritance.

public static class IEnumerableExtensions
    public static void Each<T>(
      this IEnumerable<T> source,
      Action<T> action)
        foreach(T item in source)

This particular extension method spot welds an Each method on anything that implements IEnumerable<T>. You know this because the first parameter to this method defines what this will be inside the method body. Action<T> is a pre-defined class that basically stands in for a function (delegate) returning no value. Inside the method, is where the elements are extracted from the list. What this method enables is for me to cleanly apply a function in one line of code.

The lines of code…

cellsToKill.Each(c => c.LivesInNextGeneration = false);
cellsToKeepAlive.Each(c => c.LivesInNextGeneration = true);

... simply iterate through the cells that match and set the flag LivesInNextGeneration appropriately. The code c => c.LivesInNextGeneration = false; is a lambda function. Lambda functions let you write very concise anonymous methods. Type inference comes into play here allowing me to avoid typing Cell c => .... The compiler determines that c is of type Cell because the Each extension is returning an IEnumerable<Cell>.

Marking the cell this way is a design decision that allows the code to persist the decision without modifying the collection by modifying the Age of the cell. That update, or change in the cells Age, happens separately. Another way to accomplish this would have been to build separate lists for cellsToKill and cellsToKeepAlive.

Rules for Dead Cells

The NextGeneration method then applies the rules that apply to dead cells.

/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"><summary></span>
/// Applies the rules to non living cells.
/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"></summary></span>
private void ApplyRulesToNonLivingCells()
    // a non-living cell can only be born
    // a living cell can either die or survive
    var notLivingCells =
        from c in _cells
        where c.Age  0
        select c;

    var pregnantCells =
        from c in notLivingCells
        where c.NumberOfLivingNeighbors  3
        select c;

    pregnantCells.Each(c => c.LivesInNextGeneration = true);

Query chaining is used again to select cells from the dead cells in the current generation that will be born in the next generation. Those cells are marked so that they will be alive in the next generation.

Updating the State

The age is effected after the rules have been applied. The cell list is queried based on the LivesInNextGeneration marker, and the appropriate method is called. The GiveLife method simply adds one to the Age. The TakeLife method simply sets the Age to zero.

/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"><summary></span>
/// Update cells effects the age of the cells in the dish
/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"></summary></span>
private void UpdateCells()
    // giveth life
    var livingCells =
        from c in _cells
        where c.LivesInNextGeneration
        select c;

    livingCells.Each(c => c.GiveLife());

    // taketh it away
    var dyingCells =
        from c in _cells
        where !c.LivesInNextGeneration
        select c;

    dyingCells.Each(c => c.TakeLife());

Playing God: New Rules for Life

In the tradition of the “Game of Life” (everyone comes up with his/her own rules), and to see how easy it is to change the code; I made up “The Spawning Rule”. This rule states:

  • A living cell dies when it reaches an age limit, and spawns life on all its non-living neighbors.

In the ApplyRulesToLivingCells method, I added the following query:

var dyingOfOldAge =
    from c in cellsToKeepAlive
        c.Age >= AgeLimit
    select c;

These are cells that would have aged another generation in the next update, but have already reached the spawn rule’s age limit. Therefore, I have to remove them from the list of cells to keep alive.

// remove the old-age cells
cellsToKeepAlive = cellsToKeepAlive.Except(dyingOfOldAge);

Notice the Except method excluding the cells that are also on the dyingOfOldAge list. It allows me to perform what essentially amounts to a SQL NOT IN filter inside a LINQ query.

Giving life to the non-living neighbors is a little more tricky.

// old age cells spawn by making
// any non-living neighbors alive
var spawnedCells =
    from old in dyingOfOldAge
    from n in old.Neighbors
        n.Age == 0
    select n;

To get the “non-living neighbors”, we first start from the cells that are dyingOfOldAge. Without a join, you can use another sequence that is attached to the item in the first sequence (e.g. Neighbors), and select from that new sequence.

The code at the end of that function that marks the cells as LivesInNextGeneration or not then becomes:

cellsToKill.Each(c => c.LivesInNextGeneration = false);
dyingOfOldAge.Each(c => c.LivesInNextGeneration = false);
cellsToKeepAlive.Each(c => c.LivesInNextGeneration = true);
spawnedCells.Each(c => c.LivesInNextGeneration = true);


I may never write a for loop again. At least not while trying to find a particular element within a collection. LINQ expressions, extension methods, lambda expressions, and type inference are just a few of the powerful new features of 3.5 that make C#/VB.NET so much more expressive: not just for your typical database backed LOB application, but for everyday coding.

In this article, I only touched on some of the critical places where I used LINQ. Please download the source for this project and look at even more LINQ-y goodness. There is even an example of using the Enumerable.Range method that provides Ruby style sequence generation. Warning: I didn't spend much time on the GUI itself. The code would also make a good basis for a round or two of code golf, as the point of this article is to show how readable and clear LINQ can make your code.


This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)


About the Author

United States United States
Jeff Kwak (a.k.a., FutureTurnip) is an open minded software developer/architect on top of the .net stack. He's coded in everything from 8-bit assembly language to C#. Currently, he's into big architecture, organizing software teams/process, emerging web technologies (like Silverlight and MS MVC), languages, ... all things software and related to software.

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Comments and Discussions

QuestionCell and GRid diagrams doesnt load, Pin
ArunKS78315-Dec-13 21:41
memberArunKS78315-Dec-13 21:41 
AnswerRe: Cell and GRid diagrams doesnt load, Pin
futureturnip16-Dec-13 2:32
memberfutureturnip16-Dec-13 2:32 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pin
paladin_t6-Jun-12 20:45
memberpaladin_t6-Jun-12 20:45 
GeneralExtremely helpful Pin
Megalithic123-Feb-10 4:52
memberMegalithic123-Feb-10 4:52 
GeneralRe: Extremely helpful Pin
futureturnip23-Feb-10 7:23
memberfutureturnip23-Feb-10 7:23 
GeneralSuggestion - small improvement Pin
Howard Richards6-Jul-09 20:32
memberHoward Richards6-Jul-09 20:32 
GeneralRe: Suggestion - small improvement Pin
futureturnip7-Jul-09 3:14
memberfutureturnip7-Jul-09 3:14 
GeneralRe: Suggestion - small improvement Pin
futureturnip15-Sep-09 17:00
memberfutureturnip15-Sep-09 17:00 
General5 stars Pin
Anton Bredikhin4-Oct-08 8:07
memberAnton Bredikhin4-Oct-08 8:07 
GeneralMoves like a flock of birds Pin
DougDeveloper25-Sep-08 18:46
memberDougDeveloper25-Sep-08 18:46 
GeneralNice approach to LINQ Pin
Bcoelho200014-Apr-08 23:15
memberBcoelho200014-Apr-08 23:15 
GeneralI love it.... but they need to fix LINQ Pin
Sam Rahimi8-Apr-08 18:56
memberSam Rahimi8-Apr-08 18:56 
GeneralRe: I love it.... but they need to fix LINQ Pin
futureturnip9-Apr-08 4:30
memberfutureturnip9-Apr-08 4:30 
GeneralSmart and Simple Pin
Vicmart697-Apr-08 6:56
memberVicmart697-Apr-08 6:56 
GeneralThanks for the example Pin
Mark Pearl11-Mar-08 4:51
memberMark Pearl11-Mar-08 4:51 
GeneralVery good code Pin
defwebserver6-Mar-08 6:01
memberdefwebserver6-Mar-08 6:01 
GeneralRe: Very good code Pin
futureturnip6-Mar-08 9:57
memberfutureturnip6-Mar-08 9:57 
GeneralRe: Very good code Pin
Wiebe Tijsma21-Aug-08 2:50
memberWiebe Tijsma21-Aug-08 2:50 
GeneralExcellent Pin
merlin9816-Mar-08 3:59
membermerlin9816-Mar-08 3:59 
GeneralGreat article! Pin
mr.stick6-Mar-08 3:14
membermr.stick6-Mar-08 3:14 
GeneralRe: Great article! Pin
futureturnip6-Mar-08 4:06
memberfutureturnip6-Mar-08 4:06 
GeneralA benchmark article Pin
hughjaynus6-Mar-08 2:39
memberhughjaynus6-Mar-08 2:39 
GeneralGreat! Pin
johannesnestler5-Mar-08 22:29
memberjohannesnestler5-Mar-08 22:29 
GeneralThanks. Pin
jometrv5-Mar-08 16:58
memberjometrv5-Mar-08 16:58 
GeneralRe: Thanks. Pin
futureturnip5-Mar-08 17:26
memberfutureturnip5-Mar-08 17:26 

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