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# Finding Similiar Images

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24 Sep 2002

## Introduction

Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) should be the right title for this article. CBIR is a way to index or find a similarity between images in a multimedia database. There are methods such as Fourier Transform, Hough Transform, Wavelet Transform, Gabor Transform, Hadamard transform coefficients to be used as engine in CBIR system. Retrieval by image content has received great attention in the last decades. Several techniques have been proposed to the problem of finding or indexing images based on their contents. Each method used has strong and weak points.

In this article I try to give an overview view about CBIR because this kind of topics is the most frequently asked question in Digital Image Processing. Here I used CxImage library from Davide Pizzolato (http://www.aoi.it). The latest version of CxImage library contain a function to transform an image into it's frequency domain that is FFT2 function. The technique I used here is not really efficient but at least this article will guide you to more advanced CBIR.

If you want more efficient method try to follow this links http://debut.cis.nctu.edu.tw/pages/slides/jeffrey/present2.pdf and http://www.telecom.tuc.gr/paperdb/icassp99/PDF/AUTHOR/IC991221.PDF

## Finding Similiar Images

There are 4 steps to perform image retrieval based on the similarity:

1. Load Query Image (Image we want to search for or find images similar to this)
2. Generate Signature of Key Image using Fourier Transform
3. For every images in the database Load and generate the signature
4. Calculate Euclidean Distance for Key Image Signature and Database Image Signature
5. Put the value in a auto-sorted listbox to make similarity investigation easier because smallest value stay in the top of the list and step down for similar images.

The image similarity depend on Euclidean Distance. The smaller the distance the image will get more similar. In measuring similarity, there are few famous math formulas such as Dice similarity coefficients, Jackard, Otsuka, Simpson, Manhattan, Robinson, and more.

## The libraries used:

1. CxImage (http://www.aoi.it)
3. CDirDialog (I forgot the creator)

A list of licenses authors might use can be found here

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 The code can not be compiled , There l cannot find ximage.h and any lib files. should I download these files ? 3x Member 443190029-Dec-13 15:37 Member 4431900 29-Dec-13 15:37
 Re: The code can not be compiled , There l cannot find ximage.h and any lib files. should I download these files ? 3x Member 1083152320-May-14 2:08 Member 10831523 20-May-14 2:08
 compile Su-Jin Oh21-Feb-13 18:33 Su-Jin Oh 21-Feb-13 18:33
 Please remember eRRaTuM22-Nov-11 0:29 eRRaTuM 22-Nov-11 0:29
 My vote of 1 eRRaTuM22-Nov-11 0:26 eRRaTuM 22-Nov-11 0:26
 cbir using color histogram MATLAB code wanlovewan18-Oct-10 12:10 wanlovewan 18-Oct-10 12:10
 cannot upload images varshanth28-Jan-10 20:29 varshanth 28-Jan-10 20:29
 to display images in matlab guide frame or listbox anjan kumar sahoo1-Dec-09 17:35 anjan kumar sahoo 1-Dec-09 17:35
 update from cimage.lib xpjandy29-Oct-09 17:01 xpjandy 29-Oct-09 17:01
 How to use this in RGB color space? czwarty20-Oct-09 8:02 czwarty 20-Oct-09 8:02
 I have the same problem is “unresolved external symbol "public: bool __thiscall CxImage::Load(unsigned short const *,unsigned long)" (?Load@CxImage@@QAE_NPBGK@Z)” liuyang_bnu11-May-09 21:26 liuyang_bnu 11-May-09 21:26
 Post an .exe-file andycpp3-May-09 8:38 andycpp 3-May-09 8:38
 Re: same code in matlab GAURAV JASWAL7-Dec-09 22:58 GAURAV JASWAL 7-Dec-09 22:58
 matlab maryam2222-Feb-09 8:36 maryam222 2-Feb-09 8:36
 CBIR eipro22-Dec-08 3:19 eipro 22-Dec-08 3:19
 Re: CBIR Member 114112015-Mar-15 23:23 Member 11411201 5-Mar-15 23:23
 Can I find the same system in Matlab alturkhomi15-Dec-08 17:40 alturkhomi 15-Dec-08 17:40
 i have build it successfully ahlawat.arun@gmail.com13-Nov-08 19:45 ahlawat.arun@gmail.com 13-Nov-08 19:45
 Re: i have build it successfully cnbjliuaihua1-Jun-12 3:00 cnbjliuaihua 1-Jun-12 3:00
 Re: i have build it successfully cnbjliuaihua1-Jun-12 17:10 cnbjliuaihua 1-Jun-12 17:10
 Re: i have build it successfully jotsna Waghmare7-Mar-12 23:58 jotsna Waghmare 7-Mar-12 23:58
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