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How does it work in Mono's C# compiler?

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30 Apr 2012CPOL
The Mono is an Open Source free programming language project. It has the implementation of Microsoft’s .NET Framework based on the ECMA standards for C# language and Common Language Runtime (CLR). In this article, I will explore how the Mono C# compiler works.

Table of Contents


Mono is an Open Source free programming language project. It is an implementation of Microsoft’s .NET Framework based on the European association for standardizing information and communication systems (ECMA) standards for C# language and Common Language Runtime (CLR). The Mono C# compiler was started by Miguel de Icaza. In Table 1, I have tried to show the different components of Mono and a brief description of those components to show what they do. 

Table 1: Mono source code components
C# Compiler Mono’s C# compiler is an implementation of the C# language based on the ECMA specificiation. It is now with C# 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0.
Mono Runtime The runtime implements the ECMA Common Language Infrastructure (CLI). The runtime provides a Just-in-Time (JIT) compiler, an Ahead-of-Time compiler (AOT), a library loader, the garbage collector, a threading system, and interoperability functionality.
Base Class LibraryThe Mono platform provides a comprehensive set of classes that provide a solid foundation to build applications on. These classes are compatible with Microsoft's .NET Framework classes.
Mono Class Library Mono also provides many classes that go above and beyond the Base Class Library provided by Microsoft. These provide additional functionality that are useful, especially in building Linux applications. Some examples are classes for Gtk+, Zip files, LDAP, OpenGL, Cairo, POSIX, etc.

Note: The information shown in the above table has been retrieved from

There are many version of the Mono compiler. Table 2 shows the different versions of the Mono compiler and the framework each supports.

Table 2: Mono compiler version and related frameworks
Compiler VersionTarget Framework
mcs 1.1
gmcs 2.0
smcs 2.1
dmcs 4.0

Note: The information shown in the table has been retrieved from

The compiler mcs now defaults to the 3.x language specification, starting with Mono 2.8.

Getting the Mono source code

Mono is a freely available Open Source C# programming language project. If you want to download the Mono C# compiler project’s source code, there are many places to do so. We can use gitHub for instance. The URL for the Mono source code in gitHub is Or we can download from other places such as I downloaded the Mono source code from gitHub site (Figure 4.1). There are a few branches of Mono for example, as seen in Figure 4.1. Mono has mono-2-10, mono-2-10-8, mono-2-6, mono-2-8, etc. In the following Table 3, I show the different directories of Mono and a short description of each.

Table 3: Mono source code directory
docs Technical documents about the Mono runtime.
data Configuration files installed as part of the Mono runtime.
mono The core of the Mono Runtime.
metadata The object system and metadata reader.
mini The Just in Time Compiler.
dis CIL executable Disassembler
cli Common code for the JIT and the interpreter.
io-layerThe I/O layer and system abstraction for emulating the .NET IO model.
cilCommon Intermediate Representation, XML definition of the CIL byte codes.
interpInterpreter for CLI executable (obsolete).
arch Architecture specific portions.
mcs The core of the Mono Compiler code
mcsCompiler source code
jay Parser generator
man Manual pages for the various Mono commands and programs.
samplesSome simple sample programs on uses of the Mono runtime as an embedded library.
scriptsScripts used to invoke Mono and the corresponding program.
runtimeA directory that contains the Makefiles that link the mono/ and mcs/ build systems.
../oliveIf the directory ../olive is present (as an independent checkout) from the Mono module, that directory is automatically configured to share the same prefix than this module gets.

Note: The above Mono source code directory has been retrieved from

The Mono compiler source code resides inside the mcs folder of /mono/mcs.


Jay is an Open Source Compiler-Compiler tool derived from Berkeley Yacc. It is used in the Mono project as a Compiler-Compiler tool to generate the parser of the Mono C# compiler. Jay reads the grammar specification from a grammar file and generates an LR parser for it. This cs-parser.jay file is used by Jay to turn into cs-parser.cs file which will be consumed by the Mono C# compiler as the parser.

cs-parser.jay to cs-parser.cs conversion

Cygwin is a set of Open Source tools which provide a Linux like environment for Windows where Linux applications, for example, Shell can be used in Windows. So now we assume we have a working Cygwin environment in our desktop. We will open the Cygwin terminal by clicking on Start > Program Files > Cygwin > Cygwin Terminal. When we open the Cygwin terminal, it will be like Figure 1.


Figure 1: Cygwin Open mode

Please copy the Mono source code inside the /usr/src directory of the Cygwin installation directory. And now open the Cygwin terminal and write the following command listed in Code-Listing 1.

Code-Listing 1: Bash Command to convert cs-parser.jay to cs-parser.cs
$cd /usr/src/Mono/mcs
$cd jay
$cd ..
$cd mcs
$../jay/jay.exe -ctv < ../jay/skeleton.cs cs-parser.jay > cs-parser.cs

Please see the following figure:


Figure 2: Bash Command output

So after executing Jay.exe with the appropriate argument, it will convert the cs-parser.jay file into cs-parser.cs which is the parser for Mono.

Mono source code relationship

According to the documentation supplied with the Mono source code (mcs\mcs\compiler.txt or ), the entire source code file for the Mono C# compiler has been divided into five categories: Infrastructure, Parsing, Expressions, Statements and Declarations, classes, structs, Enumerations. If we look into the following Mono C# compiler source code classification table 4, then it will be easier to understand all the types used in the compiler construction in Mono.

Table 4: Mono Source code classification
Mono Compiler Source code classification
InfrastructureParsing ExpressionsStatementsDeclarations, Classes, Structs, Enumerations
codegen.cscs-parser.jay, cs-parser.csexpression.csiterators.csclass.cs

Note: The above Mono source code classification has been retrieved from

Mono compilation in depth

The Mono C# compiler starts compilation from the driver.cs file. By calling the public bool Compile () method, Mono starts its compilation process. It then initializes the TopLevelTypes variable of the RootContext class. After doing that, it calls the Parse() method of the driver class. The Parse() method then calls void Parse (CompilationUnit file) to start reading from the source code file. After reading from the source code file, the driver.cs file starts the parsing process by calling the:

void Parse (SeekableStreamReader reader, CompilationUnit file)

method. It will create an instance of the Mono parser by creating an instance of an object of CSharpParser by calling the

public CSharpParser(SeekableStreamReader reader, CompilationUnit file, CompilerContext ctx) 

constructor. If we look into the partial code of the Compile method from the driver.cs file listed in code-listing 1, we can see the main flow of the compilation process.

Code-Listing 1: Partial source code of the Compile method
public bool Compile()
   // TODO: Should be passed to parser as an argument
   RootContext.ToplevelTypes = new ModuleContainer(ctx, RootContext.Unsafe);
   // Load assemblies required
   // The second pass of the compiler
   if (!RootContext.StdLib)
   // Verify using aliases now
   if (Report.Errors > 0)
     return false;
  if (RootContext.VerifyClsCompliance)
  CodeGen.Save(output_file, want_debugging_support, Report);

From Code-Listing 1, we can see the Mono parser starts parsing by calling public void parse() of the driver class which will call the following Parse method listed in Code-Listing 2 to continue parsing.

Code-Listing 2: Source code of Parse method
void Parse (SeekableStreamReader reader, CompilationUnit file)
   CSharpParser parser = new CSharpParser (reader, file, ctx);
   try {
     parser.parse ();
   } catch (Exception ex) {
   Report.Error(589, parser.Lexer.Location,
      "Compilation aborted in file `{0}', {1}", file.Name, ex);

This Parse method will create an instance of the CSharpParser class by calling the constructor listed in Code-Listing 3. This will make an instance of the Mono parser generated by Compiler-Compiler tool Jay as we discussed earlier.

Code-Listing 3: Constructor of the CSharpParser class
public CSharpParser (SeekableStreamReader reader, CompilationUnit file, CompilerContext ctx)

The constructor listed in Code-Listing 3 will take the file reader stream and a readonly value of the compiler context defined in the driver class.

Code-Listing 4: CSharpParser declaration in the cs-parser.jay file
using System.Text;
using System.IO;
using System;
namespace Mono.CSharp
using System.Collections;
/// <summary>
///    The C# Parser
    public class CSharpParser

The parser object created from CSharpParser will call the internal parse() method of the CSharpParser class which will call the Compiler-Compiler generated yyparse method. To call yyparse, it needs to pass the lexer or the tokenizer in it as a parameter. The code listed in Code-Listing 5 shows the method signature of the yyparse method which takes the lexer as a parameter.

Code-Listing 5: Signature of the yyparse method
internal Object yyparse (yyParser.yyInput yyLex)

The parsing will take place in this yyparse method. This yyparse method will parse each of the tokens generated by the lexer.

Code-Listing 6: Lexer initialization in the CSharpParser constructor
public CSharpParser (SeekableStreamReader reader, CompilationUnit file, CompilerContext ctx)
  // Code has been removed
  lexer = new Tokenizer (reader, file, ctx);

The yyparse method will call the xToken() method of the lexer to generate tokens for it. The lexer will return a token by doing lexical analysis of the source code of a program. Before we move ahead, we need to understand the token generation process. In Mono, token generation is an interesting process, the Tokenizer class reads each character from the source code (for example, in this instance, ClassToParse.cs listed in Code-Listing 13) one by one and will match with keywords stored in the tokenizer class to find out whether it has an associate keyword or find if it is a literal. The lexer will perform this operation by calling the Is_identifier_start_character(int c) method, to find out whether the character is an identifier or not by calling the get_char() method. If it is an identifier, then the lexer will call the consume_identifier(int s) method to consume the identifier. The logic is shown in code-listing 7.

Code-Listing 7: Identifier check in tokenizer.cs
if (is_identifier_start_character (c)) {
   tokens_seen = true;
   return consume_identifier (c);

While the lexer tries to consume the identifier, it will try to find out if there is any keyword match as shown in Code-Listing 8 by calling the GetKeyword method.

Code-Listing 8: consume_identifier of tokenizer.cs
private int consume_identifier (int c, bool quoted)
    while ((c = get_char ()) != -1) {
    // code has been removed from above for simplicity
    if (id_builder [0] >= '_' && !quoted) {
        int keyword = GetKeyword (id_builder, pos);
        if (keyword != -1) {
            // TODO: No need to store location for keyword, required location cleanup
            val = loc;
            return keyword;
    CharArrayHashtable identifiers_group = identifiers [pos];
    if (identifiers_group != null) {
        val = identifiers_group [id_builder];
        if (val != null) {
            val = new LocatedToken (loc, (string) val);
            if (quoted)
            AddEscapedIdentifier ((LocatedToken) val);
            return Token.IDENTIFIER;
    val = new String (id_builder, 0, pos);
    identifiers_group.Add (chars, val);
    val = new LocatedToken (loc, (string) val);
    if (quoted)
    AddEscapedIdentifier ((LocatedToken) val);
    return Token.IDENTIFIER;

If the token is not a keyword, then the lexer will mark it as an identifier and return IDENTIFIER as the token type and the word it consumes from the stream will be stored in the val object of the lexer class, i.e., the Tokenizer class (cs-toeknizer.cs). The val is an object type private variable defined in the lexer (which is cs-tokenizer.cs). The val object of the Tokenizer.cs file is accessible via a property called value in the Tokenizer class listed in Code-Listing 9.

Code-Listing 9: value property of tokenizer.cs
public Object value ()
  return val;

After finish the checking process, the lexer will return the token to the parser to continue the parsing process. So when the parser finds a token value returned by the lexer (for example, 418 for IDENTIFIER for the example listed in Code-Listing 5.18; see appendix for details of the Mono tokens), then the parser will treat it as an identifier and try to access the val associated with the identifier. To access the val of the Tokenizer class, the parser will call the value property of the lexer and assign the value into yyVal (yyVal object type local variable defined in the yyparse method) of the parser. Each of this yyVal will be stored in the yyVals array inside the yyparse method in the CSharpParser class. The value stored in the yyVals array will be used later as a substitute variable for the grammar. In the following Code-Listing 5.13, we can see how yyVal is being stored in the yyVals array. Note: Substitution is the grammar-parser communication, i.e., to pass a value into a grammar file. For example, if we want to substitute variable $1 or $2 or $3 defined in the grammar from the parsing, we have to pass the substitute value from the parser. In here, yyVals will store that entire substitute variable for the grammar as per the tokens.

Code-Listing 10: Source code of the yyparse method of cs-parser.cs
internal Object yyparse(yyParser.yyInput yyLex)
   for (int yyTop = 0; ; ++yyTop)
   yyVals[yyTop] = yyVal;
   if (debug != null) debug.push(yyState, yyVal);

When the parser accesses the value from the Tokenizer using the yyVal=yyLex.value() statement, it then assigns back yyVal to yyVals as shown in Code-Listing 5.13. This communication between the lexer and the parser is like Just in Time, i.e., whenever the parser requires a token, it will ask for it by calling the xToken() method of the lexer and the lexer will execute the xtoken() method to perform the operation for the parser. So when the parser gets a token from the lexer, it will calculate the yyN value. The usage of the yyN value in Mono is to match with the appropriate grammar action block. yyN is one of the important variables in the parser because it is actually used to do the mapping between the token value returned from the source code file by the lexer and the grammar (language specification, for example, cs-parser.jay). Using the token value, the parser will match with the grammar action block defined in the yyparse method (the switch case statements generated by the Compiler-Compiler Jay). If it matches any case statement, then the parser will execute the related code block defined in the matched case condition. This code block will initialize the related abstract syntax tree node type, for example, a type of Statement object or Expression object and it will add the type object into the TypeContainer.

In short, parser will execute the action block of the grammar when any token value matched with the value yyNN, for example from the grammar file cs-parser.jay file of the Mono has following grammar showing in the code-Listing 11, in the line 1265 for the method declaration.

Code-Listing 11: Grammar declaration of the Method in cs-parser.jay
: method_header {
if (RootContext.Documentation != null)
Lexer.doc_state = XmlCommentState.NotAllowed;
Method method = (Method) $1;
method.Block = (ToplevelBlock) $3;
current_container.AddMethod (method);
if (current_container.Kind == Kind.Interface && method.Block != null) {
Report.Error (531, method.Location, "`{0}': interface members cannot have a definition", method.GetSignatureForError ());
current_generic_method = null;
current_local_parameters = null;
if (RootContext.Documentation != null)
Lexer.doc_state = XmlCommentState.Allowed;

The method grammar specified in the grammar specification file in this case cs-parser.jay file also defined in the cs-parser.cs file within a case statement. In this case, the case condition value is 159 (159 is given by Compiler-Compiler tool in this case Jay while converting cs-parser.jay into cs-parser.cs) as shown in the code-listing 12. The code block defined for the method in the grammar will execute whenever lexer return a token value which become 159 as yyN value (yyN value is generate based on the token). This code block actually add instance of Method class into the Type container.

Code-Listing 12: Partial code block from the yyparser method
switch (yyN)
case 159:
#line 1265 "cs-parser.jay"
Method method = (Method)yyVals[-2 + yyTop];
method.Block = (ToplevelBlock)yyVals[0 + yyTop];
if (current_container.Kind == Kind.Interface && method.Block != null)
Report.Error(531, method.Location, 
    "`{0}': interface members cannot have a definition", 
current_generic_method = null;
current_local_parameters = null;
if (RootContext.Documentation != null)
Lexer.doc_state = XmlCommentState.Allowed;

From the above code listed in Code-Listing 12, we can see there is communication between this grammar and cs-parser.jay file using substitute variable. In the Code-Listing 11 there are two substitute value $1 which will be replaced by the value returned from (Method)yyVals[-2 + yyTop] and $3 by the return value of (ToplevelBlock)yyVals[0 + yyTop] from the code listed in the Code-Listing 12. This is how whole grammar will match with the token return by the lexer and the action block will be executed based on the grammar. The same process will continue until the end of the source code file, i.e., finalizes the token searching from the source code.

Debug Mono compilation

We will experiment using Source Code Listing 13 and try to understand the following two basic things by debugging the Mono compiler using Visual Studio 2010 as IDE:.

  • How does Mono retrieve tokens and parse source code.
  • How does it build the AST.

The following ClassToParse class listed in Code-Listing 13 is written using C# and will be used as the source code for this experiment. ClassToParse is a simple program which has a using statement and a namespace declaration. It also defines a class and inside of the class, it has a Main method which is the entry point.

Code-Listing 13: Source code to display Hello! world on the Console.
using System;
namespace gmcs
public class ClassToParse
    public static int Main (string[] args)
         Console.WriteLine("Hello! World.");
         return 1;

The above ClassToParse program will be used to do this experiment. To start this debug we require to do bit of ground work such as we need to do, modify the Main (string[] args) method of the driver.cs file of the Mono source code as shown in the Code-Listing 14.

Code-Listing 14: Source code Main method of the driver.cs
public static int Main(string[] args)
    Location.InEmacs = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("EMACS") == "t";
    args = new string[] { @"C:\Temp\ClassToParse.cs", @"-out:C:\Temp\Otu.exe" };
    Driver d = Driver.Create(args, true, new ConsoleReportPrinter());
    if (d == null)
        return 1;
    if (d.Compile() && d.Report.Errors == 0)
        if (d.Report.Warnings > 0)
            Console.WriteLine("Compilation succeeded - {0} warning(s)", d.Report.Warnings);
        return 0;
    Console.WriteLine("Compilation failed: {0} error(s), {1} warnings",
        d.Report.Errors, d.Report.Warnings);
    return 1;

In the above code listed in the 14, I added the ClassToParse.cs file path into the args[] array (which is C:\Temp\ClassToParse.cs) and set the parsing option along with output filename for instance in here Out.exe. If we put a break point on the if (d.Compile() && d.Report.Errors == 0) line:

When it starts debugging, the Mono compiler will call the Compile() method of the Driver object for instance, d.Compile() starts calling another method to start compiling as below. If we look into the Compile() method of the driver.cs class, we can see the major functionality is as below:

Code-Listing 15: Compile method of the driver.cs
public bool Compile ()
    RootContext.ToplevelTypes = new ModuleContainer (ctx, RootContext.Unsafe);
    Parse ();
    ProcessDefaultConfig ();
    // Load assemblies required
    LoadReferences ();
    // The second pass of the compiler
    RootContext.ResolveTree ();
    RootContext.PopulateTypes ();
    // Verify using aliases now
    NamespaceEntry.VerifyAllUsing ();
    CodeGen.Assembly.Resolve ();
    // The code generator
    RootContext.CloseTypes ();
    CodeGen.Save (output_file, want_debugging_support, Report);

Depending on the tokenize status inside the parser method, it will go further, i.e., it will start tokenize_file.

Code-Listing 16: Parse method of the cs-parser.cs
public void Parse()
    ArrayList cu = Location.SourceFiles;
    for (int i = 0; i < cu.Count; ++i)
        if (tokenize)
            // MoRe: Step 3
            tokenize_file((CompilationUnit)cu[i], ctx);

and finally the parser will call parse() of the CSharpParser class which has been generated by Jay.

Code-Listing 17: Parse method of the Mono
void Parse(SeekableStreamReader reader, CompilationUnit file)
    CSharpParser parser = new CSharpParser(reader, file, ctx);
    catch (Exception ex)
        Report.Error(589, parser.Lexer.Location,
            "Compilation aborted in file `{0}', {1}", file.Name, ex);

All the grammar specified in cs-parser.jay has an action block against the rule and also in the parser method there is a mapping between this grammar and their associate action (please see the Appendix for full listing of grammar for the Mono C# compiler) as a case of the switch statement. Depending on (the token value converted into) yyN value, the related action will be executed to build the abstract syntax tree. If we look into Figure 3, we can see how Mono consumes a token as it calls Parse() of driver.cs and then yyparse of the CSharpParser class. yyparse will consume the token from the input stream by calling the xtoken() method of the Tokenizer class.


Figure 3: Stack trace of the Compile() method

Before we go ahead, we will a have a look at the process that takes place inside the xtoken() method. In the first phase of file reading, Tokenizer will read the first character from the stream which will be 117. In here, 117 is the representation of u in ASCII (please see the Appendix for the complete list of ASCII and decimal value tables). If we look at Figure 4, it shows the current value of c (character refers to the token) is 117 which is u and it is the first character of the using statement used in the ClassToParse class.


Figure 4: Tokenizing the ClassToParse class

As 117 is not a standard token, so it will be validated as the identifier and tokenizer will start consuming the identifier as showing in the Figure 5,


Figure 5: Tokenizeing using statement

After consume the identifier it will match with the stored keyword inside the tokenizer class and try to find out whether it is a Keyword or not as showed in the Figure 6.


Figure 6: Keyword matching

It will be identified as a keyword as Mono has a keyword with value 335 (please see the Appendix for a full list of tokens). And finally, the lexer will return the token value 335 which is the using statement. Figure 7 shows the return statement of the token method of the lexer which returns 335 as the current token value.


Figure 7: Current Token value from the token() of the cs-tokenizer.cs

The parser will now try to find out whether there is any condition which is equal to this token value, if so, it will execute the related action block defined as part of the grammar.

Before parser can execute the action block it has to calculate the yyN value as we see earlier yyN is the mapping between token value and grammar. The bit of code which parser uses to calculate yyN is listed in the Code-Listing 18.

Code-Listing 18: yyN calculation based on yyTable
if ((yyN = yyRindex[yyState]) != 0 && (yyN += yyToken) >= 0
     && yyN < yyTable.Length && yyCheck[yyN] == yyToken)
          yyN = yyTable[yyN];

If we see the Figure 8, we can see the watch window while debugging the compiler with the token value 374. In this calculation process, the parser will retrieve the yyN value from the yyTable (yyTable was created while generating the parser using Jay) array.


Figure 8: yyN value in the watch list

The yyN value calculation is another interesting bit of work in the Mono compiler. So based on the given value yyState = 33, yyToken = 374, we get the value of 33th position of yyRinedx[33] which will be 450. The current value of the yyN will be 450 and second part of the if((yyN += yyToken) >= 0) condition will add yyToken value with 450(current value of yyN) as yyN += yyToken.

Finally, the latest yyN value will be 824 (current token is 374 + previous yyN value which is 450). This 824 will be used as index to retrieve the value stored into the yyTable (yyTable created by the Compiler-Compiler Jay while converting the cs-parser.jay to cs-parser.cs) in that position. And this value will be used as the new value of yyN which will be used as the switch case selector to execute the action block. I would like introduce here following arrays listed in the Code-Listing 5.23. All these arrays have been created by the compiler-compiler Jay while converted grammar file into the parser.

Note: Array generated by the Jay for the Mono Parser.

Code-Listing 19: array generation by yacc
static short[] yyLhs
static short[] yyLen
static short[] yyDefRed
protected static short[] yyDgoto
protected static short[] yySindex
protected static short[] yyRindex
protected static short[] yyGindex
protected static short[] yyTable
protected static short[] yyCheck

In Figure 9, I have tried to show how yyN maps the case statement defined in the yyparse method to execute the related code block defined in the grammar, i.e., the cs-parser.jay file.


Figure 9: Token Mapping

We can see from Figure 10 how Mono constructs the abstract syntax tree while parsing the source code of a program. Each time the parser finds a valid token and a yyN value, it will match with the condition to run the related action block which adds the related type (based on the grammar specification, please see the Appendix for a full listing of grammar for the Mono C# compiler) into the TypeContainer which is later on used to resolve the Types.


Figure 10: Watching

The Compile() method will call the ResolveTree method of the RootContext type from the rootContext.cs file.

Code-Listing 20: ResolveTree method of RootContext
RootContext.ResolveTree ();

The ResolveTree method will generate the hierarchy tree or parse tree. And later on, the Compile() method calls PopulateTypes of the RootContext class. So far we have seen how Mono tokenizes the source code, parses the source code, and based on it how it constructs the Abstract Syntax Tree. In the next section, we will see how Mono generates Intermediate Language (IL) code to generate the assembly.



This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)


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Questioni need the interpreter ( not AOT or JIT ) Pin
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GeneralGreat explanation ! Pin
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GeneralRe: Great explanation ! Pin
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Mohammad A Rahman19-Mar-12 18:35
MemberMohammad A Rahman19-Mar-12 18:35 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pin
gerkims18-Mar-12 14:39
Membergerkims18-Mar-12 14:39 

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