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Posted 30 Oct 2003

Moving a relational database onto Bamboo Prevalence

, 30 Oct 2003
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The article describes how to move a database onto Bamboo Prevalence


One of the irritations in working with data-intensive applications is that you almost have to use relational databases to store your data. There is little alternative to them because they are so efficient in storing and retrieving data. The downside is that the developer needs to deal with a lot of programming overhead to cross the impedance mismatch between objects and data. OODBMS have never been a very successful alternative and they are just as expensive and just as heavy.

Wouldn't it be nice if there was a fast, lightweight data store? One that keeps all the objects you need in memory (after all, memory is cheap) and which stores them away and provides you with the same ACID properties as a RDBMS does?

Well, there is. It's called Prevalence, and the .NET implementation is called Bamboo. This article demonstrates how to move your RDBMS over to a Bamboo-style implementation using the XSD Migration Toolkit. 

Background - What is Prevalence

The concept of prevalence was invented by Klaus Wuestefeld. His concept is simple:

  1. All objects are stored in memory, because memory is cheap.
  2. At regular intervals (or when shutting down) the objects are serialized to disk, called a snapshot.
  3. All manipulations to the object is recorded in a commandlog, which is written to disk immediately.

These three concepts are very simple and yet powerful. Memory is cheap and 1 Gigabyte of RAM is not uncommon nor expensive these days. Many (yes not all, but probably 80% or more) databases do not use this much data.

Writing the snapshot to disk is quick and hardly causes overhead amongst all the disk I/O the O/S already performs.

Writing the commandlog to disk immediately gives us the ability to recover. If the application falls over it is simply restarted, then the snapshot and the outstanding commandlog are read in and applied.

The result is impressive. The Prevalence Wiki at has run comparisons with MySQL and Oracle and found 3000 and 9000 times faster performance respectively. But in most cases that is not what counts. What is really important is that one can work with proper entity objects instead of tables/records and flywheel patterns. This makes the implementation lightweight from the development perspective as well.

The C# implementation of prevalence is called Bamboo and can be found on Sourceforge at

The XSD Migration Kit (aka Bamboo Builder)

One of the issues I had with Bamboo was that it took a greenfields view: simply write a few objects and away you go. In reality, however, I had all my applications on databases and I was really interested in moving them over. So I developed the XSD Migration kit. Its purpose is quite simple:

  • Read an XSD file of a DataSet generated in VS.NET.
  • For each table write a business class.
  • Write a RootObject to manage access to all the entities.

You might ask, why bother, because XSD.EXE already has an option to generate classes from XSD files. Well, that's how I started. But then I found there was still so much to do. The classes simply are a collection of public instance variables in them. Not at all what I would regard as good practice. I wanted to have features such as:

  • All table fields are encapsulated as properties.
  • For distributed applications I needed a concept to detect update collisions.
  • I needed a way to manage foreign keys.
  • Primary keys should be protected against inadvertent change.

Then the instances need to be collected somewhere so you can find them. This is where the root object comes in. In short it has the following responsibilities:

  • It contains all instances of business entities (aka records) that are managed under prevalence.
  • It can be called to insert, retrieve, update or delete entities.
  • It has functions to retrieve entities with a particular foreign keys.
  • Support entities with multi-field primary keys.
  • Acts as a single entry-point for calls to change the data so that Prevalence can quietly wrap around it and do its magic.

Those were the minimum features. In addition, I wanted more (who doesn't). This is what I came up with in the end:

  • Stronlgy typed collections and dictionaries for each entity (I figured while I was generating entitites I should go for the whole hog).
  • Support for IEditableObject, as I also wanted to have it easier using them with forms.
  • Remoting (Well actually, the particular implementation of Bamboo already does this - so I can't claim it here).
  • Object-object relations; get away from foreign keys

The last item looked like a natural to be included in the first list. And so it was - until I implemented a remoted application. Forget about the issue of retrieving by value an object that has relations with other instances. That I could live with. But if you do update this object and change a relationship to another object and the call the Update method on the server something horrible happens. The server receives the updated object (which physically is different from the one it has in the store) plus all the related objects which all are again physically different from what is in the store. The server now has to go, update the stored object by inspecting all relations stored and comparing them with the one received from the update call. That is a nightmare.

So I decided to stay with foreign keys. I called it loosely coupled relationships. It makes life a lot easier.

So I didn't implement the last item. However I am considering generating autoretriving properties that will simply call back to the server.

Before I forget - there was one more feature: generating an automated loader class that can take the original DataSet, filled from the database and create the objects and store them in the Bamboo store!

Using the Sample

This article has several components:

  1. BambooBuilder.exe: the application to generate the class files.
  2. A simple XSD file called SimpleIssueTrack.xsd.
  3. The generated class files.
  4. A simple application skeleton to load and access the objects.

A Brief Tour of the Generated Classes

The XSD defines several tables  

  • Issue
  • IssueArea
  • Person
  • ActionItem
  • CodeSet
  • CodeSetValue

BambooBuilder reads this file and generates a class file for each table. It also generates a root class called IssueTrackRoot and a loader class called IssueTrackLoader.

Let's take a look at the generated Issue.cs:

// Generated by EntityClassGenerator 
// Generated on 31/10/2003 10:04:49 
namespace IssueTrackerLib
   using System; 
   using System.Collections; 
   using Bamboo.Prevalence; 
   public class Issue : System.ComponentModel.IEditableObject {

The points of interest is that all classes must be attributed with the SerializableAttribute. The IEditableObject interface specification is purely optional and its generation can be turned off in Bamboo Builder.

At the beginning are all the fields listed as private variables:

internal int _updateCount = 0;
internal int _IssueID;
private int _AssignedToPersonId;
private System.Decimal _Cost;
private System.DateTime _DateCreated;
private string _Description;

The first variable actually does not represent a field. Its purpose is to help with optimistic concurrency control - more about that later. The next ones are the field names with an underbar in front. How private variables are marked is a matter of taste.

As a point of interest, the first variable _IssueID is marked internal. It is a primary key hence it is not supposed to be changed by the application. However it needs to be set (by the root class) with an appropriate primary key. As it is an int, the Bamboo Builder has generated code to make it an auto-numbering key.

This is what the Insert method of the root class looks like:

/// Method used to Insert a Issue object 
/// </SUMMARY>
public virtual Issue Insert(Issue newIssue)
    if ((newIssue == null)) 
        throw new System.ArgumentNullException("newIssue",
            "Can't Insert a null object"); 
    newIssue._IssueID = _nextIssueID; 
    _nextIssueID = (_nextIssueID + 1); 
    _Issues.Add(newIssue.KeyObject, newIssue); 
    return newIssue; 

The Insert() method simply keeps track of all the nextids. The root object has one Insert() method for each entity. This makes it easy as there is no InsertIssue, InsertPerson, or InsertActionItem.

Primary keys are another issue as soon as multiple field keys appear. The CodeSetValue has two keys:

  1. CodeSetId which is also a foreign key to CodeSet.
  2. And Value which is a string.

To handle this in a common way, all entities have a method called KeyObject which returns an Object. In the case of the Issue class it is its IssueID. In the case of the CodeSetValue the KeyObject is generated thus

public virtual object KeyObject 
    get { return new _KeyObject(CodeSetId, Value); }

The class _KeyObject is internal to CodeSetId. It implements an object that overrides the comparing method Equals() to allow determining In/Equality between instances. Here is the implementation of the class IssueArea._KeyObject.

public class _KeyObject {
    private int _CodeSetId;
    private string _Value;
    public _KeyObject(int CodeSetId, string Value) {
        _CodeSetId = CodeSetId;
        _Value = Value;
    public override bool Equals(Object obj) {
        if (this.GetType() != obj.GetType()) return false;
        _KeyObject kObj = (_KeyObject) obj;
        return ((_CodeSetId == kObj._CodeSetId) 
            && (_Value == kObj._Value));
    public override int GetHashCode() {
        return _CodeSetId.GetHashCode() ^ _Value.GetHashCode();

Because _KeyObject overrides Equals() it also must override GetHashCode().

How to use the classes

To write an application you need to create some code, but a lot less than before.

Startup - create the prevalence engine

When initialising you have to create an instance of th prevalence engine and the instance of the Root Object:

string prevalenceBase = Path.Combine(Environment.CurrentDirectory, "data");
PrevalenceEngine _engine = PrevalenceActivator.CreateTransparentEngine(
    typeof(IssueTrackerLib.IssueTrackRoot), prevalenceBase);
IssueTrackerLib.IssueTrackRoot Root = _engine.PrevalentSystem
    as IssueTrackerLib.IssueTrackRoot ;

The first statement simply creates a directory for the data files. The second statement activates the prevalence engine. The third provides an instance of the root class.

Creating a new Issue is now straightforward:

Issue newIssue = new Issue(IssueAreaId, .....);

Now the Insert method, as you saw above, simply sets the primary key and stores it in its Dictionary of Issues. What about the commandlog? Earlier on I stated that the Prevalence system would record all transactions in a command which would be logged to file so that in case of a crash the state of the datastore could be restored. This is where .NET reflection comes in. If you look at the class definition of IssueTrackRoot you will see the following:

public class IssueTrackRoot : System.MarshalByRefObject {

The class IssueTrackRoot inherits from MarshalByRefObject. The prevalence engine uses that to insert proxy calls. So when you call Insert(newIssue) the call is intercepted by the Preference engine and serialised to the log file before executed.

Getting and updating an object is similarly simple:

Issue anIssue = Root.GetIssue(id);

The class Issue has a foreign key to IssueArea - if you want to get all issues for an existing IssueArea do this:

IssueArea anIssueArea = Root.GetIssueArea(id);
IssueCollection relatedIssues = Root.GetIssuesAllFor(anIssueArea);

There you are. I haven't touched on IEditableObject but take a look on that topic in the .NET help.

Points of Interest

The ZIP file also includes an application that reads an Access file and generates a data file. This has been taken out of a larger build environment and hence you need to adapt database paths and references.

If you want more detail and keep an eye on future versions: look at

Many thanks to Peter Bromberg from Egghead Cafe ( for motivating me to move Bamboo Builder from a buggy V 0.2 Alpha to a fairly stable V0.4 Beta.



  • Initial post.


This article has no explicit license attached to it but may contain usage terms in the article text or the download files themselves. If in doubt please contact the author via the discussion board below.

A list of licenses authors might use can be found here


About the Author

Stephan Meyn
Web Developer
Australia Australia
I am a Software Engineer/Consultant. My work is focussed on helping teams to get more out of their work. So I teach how to do requirements, analysis and design in a format that is easy to understand and apply.
I help with testing too, from starting developers on automated unit testing to running whole testing teams and how they cooperate with development.

For really big projects I provide complete methodologies that support all of the lifecycle.

For relaxation I paddle a sea kayak around Sydney and the Central Coast or write utilities on rainy days to make my life easier.

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Comments and Discussions

Generalxsd ID type Pin
Ernest Bariq6-Nov-03 5:05
memberErnest Bariq6-Nov-03 5:05 
GeneralRe: xsd ID type Pin
Stephan Meyn6-Nov-03 11:03
memberStephan Meyn6-Nov-03 11:03 
Generalmuch better: SQL in Memory Pin
christoph braendle31-Oct-03 6:35
memberchristoph braendle31-Oct-03 6:35 
GeneralRe: much better: SQL in Memory Pin
fifi1-Nov-03 5:56
memberfifi1-Nov-03 5:56 
GeneralRe: much better: SQL in Memory Pin
Daniel Turini1-Nov-03 6:53
memberDaniel Turini1-Nov-03 6:53 
GeneralRe: much better: SQL in Memory Pin
Arjan Einbu1-Nov-03 9:10
memberArjan Einbu1-Nov-03 9:10 
GeneralRe: much better: SQL in Memory Pin
christoph braendle2-Nov-03 4:52
memberchristoph braendle2-Nov-03 4:52 
QuestionHow useful is Bamboo.Prevalence on a multiple applications server? Pin
S. Lim30-Oct-03 21:54
memberS. Lim30-Oct-03 21:54 
AnswerRe: How useful is Bamboo.Prevalence on a multiple applications server? Pin
Stephan Meyn30-Oct-03 22:32
memberStephan Meyn30-Oct-03 22:32 
GeneralRe: How useful is Bamboo.Prevalence on a multiple applications server? Pin
Mihies30-Oct-03 23:04
memberMihies30-Oct-03 23:04 
GeneralRe: How useful is Bamboo.Prevalence on a multiple applications server? Pin
Stephan Meyn30-Oct-03 23:41
memberStephan Meyn30-Oct-03 23:41 
GeneralRe: How useful is Bamboo.Prevalence on a multiple applications server? Pin
Mihies30-Oct-03 23:54
memberMihies30-Oct-03 23:54 
GeneralRe: How useful is Bamboo.Prevalence on a multiple applications server? Pin
Stephan Meyn31-Oct-03 2:37
memberStephan Meyn31-Oct-03 2:37 
GeneralRe: How useful is Bamboo.Prevalence on a multiple applications server? Pin
Anonymous31-Oct-03 7:49
sussAnonymous31-Oct-03 7:49 
GeneralRe: How useful is Bamboo.Prevalence on a multiple applications server? Pin
S. Lim31-Oct-03 0:24
memberS. Lim31-Oct-03 0:24 
GeneralRe: How useful is Bamboo.Prevalence on a multiple applications server? Pin
Stephan Meyn31-Oct-03 2:30
memberStephan Meyn31-Oct-03 2:30 
GeneralRe: How useful is Bamboo.Prevalence on a multiple applications server? Pin
Malby3-Nov-03 21:24
memberMalby3-Nov-03 21:24 
GeneralRe: How useful is Bamboo.Prevalence on a multiple applications server? Pin
steve.deobald5-Nov-03 4:50
membersteve.deobald5-Nov-03 4:50 
GeneralRe: How useful is Bamboo.Prevalence on a multiple applications server? Pin
Stephan Meyn6-Nov-03 0:02
memberStephan Meyn6-Nov-03 0:02 

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