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A statistical analysis of the performance variations of assorted managed and unmanaged languages

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8 Aug 2002CPOL11 min read 368.7K   1.3K   45   94
This article compares and contrasts the relative performances of various languages like native C++, Visual Basic 6, C#, VB.NET, Managed C++, MC++ and native code mix, ngen'd assemblies etc. using a prime number generation function as a generic benchmark


This project was initially started by Rama who did almost all of the coding. Personal affairs halted his progress and he handed it over to Nish who took it up from where Rama had left off. Nish finished off the stuff and did some statistical analysis on the results obtained. We wanted to get an idea of how different languages and tools compare with each other in terms of performance. There are a variety of categories where speed and performance can be measured, but the first thing which that came to mind was computation, and thus prime number generation was chosen as the criteria.

The next job was to decide how to implement something that can be performance-compared in various languages. First the various common options had to be chosen. We picked up the following ten different language options that are available to the general Microsoft programmer.

The participants

  • Visual C++ 7
  • Visual Basic 6
  • C#
  • VB.NET
  • Managed C++ compiled totally to IL
  • Managed C++ with arithmetic intensive stuff in unmanaged code
  • C# ngen'd
  • VB.NET ngen'd
  • Managed C++ compiled totally to IL and ngen'd
  • Managed C++ with arithmetic intensive stuff in unmanaged code and ngen'd

The  objective was to use a single test application to run and measure the timings. Thus component DLLs were developed in all 10 language options. We ignored considering the overhead due to COM in .NET calls as we did not expect it to be very significant.

The Code

We used a simple COM interface that, when given the number of primes to compute, computed them. The IComputePrimes interface looks like this:-

interface IComputePrimes : IDispatch 
    HRESULT CalculatePrimes([in] int numPrimes);

This was generated by using the default options of the ATL object wizard. Any object implementing this interface is expected to calculate and store as many prime numbers as specified by numPrimes .

Now let's see how the code looks like for various cases.

The C++ code

STDMETHODIMP CComputePrimes::CalculatePrimes(int numPrimes)
    if (m_rgPrimes != NULL)
        delete [] m_rgPrimes;

    m_rgPrimes = new int[numPrimes];

    m_rgPrimes[0] = 2;
    m_rgPrimes[1] = 3;

    int i = 2;
    int nextPrimeCandidate = 5;

    while(i < numPrimes)
        int maxNumToDivideWith = (int)sqrt(nextPrimeCandidate);

        bool isPrime = true;

        for(int j = 0; 
            (j < i) && (maxNumToDivideWith >= m_rgPrimes[j]); 
            if ((nextPrimeCandidate % m_rgPrimes[j]) == 0)
                isPrime = false;

        if (isPrime)
            m_rgPrimes[i++] = nextPrimeCandidate;

        nextPrimeCandidate += 2;

    return S_OK;

The prime numbers computed are stored in an integer array m_rgPrimes. The above code tries to divide an odd number with all the prime numbers which are less than its square root to decide whether the number is a prime or not. If yes it stores it the array.

C# and MC++

The code for C#, Managed C++ is similar except that in the two cases with Managed C++ where we mix native code into the managed code, the code is broken into two separate functions as shown below.

void CalculatePrimes(int numPrimes)
    primes = new int __gc[numPrimes];
    int __pin* rgPrimes = &primes[0];

    UnmanagedComputePrimes (rgPrimes, numPrimes);

The array is a managed array and we pin the array and call an unmanaged function that calculates the primes and fills the array.


Private Sub IComputePrimes_CalculatePrimes(ByVal numPrimes As Long)

    ReDim Primes(numPrimes)
    Primes(1) = 2
    Primes(2) = 3

    Dim NextPrimeCandidate As Long
    NextPrimeCandidate = 5
    Dim i As Long
    Dim j As Long
    Dim MaxNumToDivideWith As Long
    Dim IsPrime As Boolean

    i = 3

    Do While i <= numPrimes
        MaxNumToDivideWith = Sqr(NextPrimeCandidate)
        IsPrime = True
        j = 1

        Do While (j <= i) And (MaxNumToDivideWith >= Primes(j))
            If NextPrimeCandidate Mod Primes(j) = 0 Then
                IsPrime = False
                Exit Do
            End If

            j = j + 1

        If IsPrime Then
            Primes(i) = NextPrimeCandidate
            i = i + 1
        End If

        NextPrimeCandidate = NextPrimeCandidate + 2

End Sub

The VB.NET code looks similar with Sqr replaced with System.Math.Sqrt function. The VB6 code is compiled with optimizations that will closely resemble the generated C++ code like removing all integer overflow checks.

The test clients

All the cases are compiled into a DLL. All assemblies are registered for COM interoperability. We have two test clients, a managed client and a native client. The native client is coded in VC++ and uses the #import keyword.

__int64 ComputeAndGetResults(
    ATLPrimesLib::IComputePrimesPtr spComputePrimes, 
    int numPrimes)
    LARGE_INTEGER li1, li2;
    li1.QuadPart = 0;
    li2.QuadPart = 0;


    return li2.QuadPart - li1.QuadPart;

int _tmain(int argc, _TCHAR* argv[])

        ATLPrimesLib::IComputePrimesPtr spComputePrimes(argv[1]);       

        int numPrimes = atol(argv[2]);
        LARGE_INTEGER f;
        std::cout << ComputeAndGetResults(spComputePrimes, numPrimes);
    catch(_com_error& e)

    return 0;

The managed client is written using C#.

    Assembly assem = Assembly.Load(args[0]);
    IComputePrimes primes = 

    int numPrimes = Int32.Parse(args[2]);

    long t1 = 0, t2 = 0;

    //So that the thunk is generated
    QueryPerformanceCounter(ref t1);
    QueryPerformanceCounter(ref t2);

    long freq = 0;
    QueryPerformanceFrequency(ref freq);
    Console.Write(t2 - t1);
catch(Exception e)

Both the clients use the QueryPerformanceCounter API call as a measure of the performance. The lesser the better. We have a program called RunMultipleTests [C#] that calls both the clients for each of the 10 types of DLLs. Take a look at the Main.cs file for how this is implemented. We called all 10 implementations once each to generate 10 primes, then 100, 1,000, 10,000, 100,000 and finally 1,000,000 (One million).

The results

I have selected a few of the generated results for discussion here. Smaller numbers indicate higher performance.

Language Primes Native Callee Managed Callee
ATLPrimes 10 18,241 192,538
VBPrime 10 21,057 191,597
CSharpPrimes 10 1,201,258 1,003,710
CSharpPrimes (ngen'd) 10 99,017 20,357
VBNetPrimes 10 1,680,241 1,440,198
VBNetPrimes (ngen'd) 10 101,201 21,644
MCPPPrimes1 10 1,443,943 1,117,279
MCPPPrimes1 (ngen'd) 10 107,362 29,574
MCPPPrimes2 10 977,667 699,355
MCPPPrimes2 (ngen'd) 10 127,969 53,861

The above table shows the various results obtained when generating 10 primes. As you can observe, the fastest performance was for the ATL DLL invoked from a native C++ client. But it might surprise you to see that when the same DLL was called from a managed client through .NET COM interop, the performance has fallen by almost 900%. So much for COM interop and it's supposed efficiency. It hurt my ego a good deal to see that the VB DLL invoked from a native client showed far superior performance to the Managed C++ DLL. Funnily the managed DLLs don't show a drastic difference in performance between native invocation and managed invocation. The exception is the MC++ DLL version 2 which is the unmanaged-managed mixed version. All the managed DLLs show an amazing performance increase when ngen'd. Perhaps it's time we all started taking ngen more seriously. Very surprisingly, the ngen'd C# DLL was the second fastest of all combinations. Curiously the VB.NET DLL was the slowest of them all. Here is a graph of the above table.

Image 1

But then 10 primes is too small a number to be making such observations. Therefore we'll now move onto the results for 1000 primes. The excel sheets in the download will list the full tables for those who are interested. And you can always tweak the sample projects to give you other combinations and permutations.

Language Primes Native Callee Managed Callee
ATLPrimes 1000 1,674,822 1,843,077
VBPrime 1000 1,659,063 1,830,014
CSharpPrimes 1000 2,951,717 2,665,328
CSharpPrimes (ngen'd) 1000 1,755,078 1,655,643
VBNetPrimes 1000 3,606,253 3,400,125
VBNetPrimes (ngen'd) 1000 2,108,643 1,954,464
MCPPPrimes1 1000 3,110,415 2,742,913
MCPPPrimes1 (ngen'd) 1000 1,719,734 1,642,938
MCPPPrimes2 1000 2,678,031 2,359,011
MCPPPrimes2 (ngen'd) 1000 1,748,994 1,742,121

Well, well, well! Suddenly the performance comparisons don't seem as contrasting as they did when we generated 10 primes. Now the combination that gave best performance is the fully managed MC++ DLL after ngen'ing. What is so painful is to see that the VB6 DLL has out-performed the ATL DLL in both managed and native invocation. Again VB.NET shows pathetic performance. But again you'll see that ngen'ing has an amazing performance boost effect on the managed assemblies. Now let's skip a few tables and go straight to the one million mark.

Language Primes Native Callee Managed Callee
ATLPrimes 1000000 19,389,792,910 19,400,345,304
VBPrime 1000000 19,334,822,911 19,340,626,315
CSharpPrimes 1000000 19,371,408,155 19,426,052,083
CSharpPrimes (ngen'd) 1000000 19,386,294,992 19,325,672,507
VBNetPrimes 1000000 19,870,238,968 19,980,902,937
VBNetPrimes (ngen'd) 1000000 20,007,201,165 19,900,407,405
MCPPPrimes1 1000000 19,363,699,234 19,346,647,324
MCPPPrimes1 (ngen'd) 1000000 19,339,817,493 19,317,645,432
MCPPPrimes2 1000000 19,450,368,014 19,325,875,844
MCPPPrimes2 (ngen'd) 1000000 19,345,122,911 19,429,232,591

Both Rama and Nish were pleasantly surprised to find that as we went to higher and higher numbers for prime number generation, the stark contrasts in performance started paling very noticeably till finally at the one million mark, they all showed very similar performance.  Again the ngen'd fully managed MC++ DLL was the best and the VB.NET DLL was the worst. What was most curious was that ngen'ing actually had a negative impact on the VB.NET DLL. And here is a graphical representation.

Image 2

Here is another graph that shows the impact ngen has on managed assemblies

Image 3

You'll notice that ngen has maximum impact on VB.NET programs and as you'd guess least impact on MC++ code that has native code blocks. You'll also notice that the impact of ngen seems to decrease as we generate a higher number of primes. This is made very clear in the following graph

Image 4

So far we have only seen cases where the methods were called once. Thus the managed versions suffered because of JIT compiling overheads. So we did multiple calls to try and see if the managed versions got any faster after the first call. So we looped the calls thrice. Here are some sample test results. Don't be surprised by the difference in results with the tables above. The first set of tests were run on a Dual P-III 550 MHz with 384 Mb RAM. So numbers are higher for the first set of results because the performance counter frequency is quite high for a dual processor machine. The multiple-method-call tests were all run on Single P-III 800 MHz with 384 Mb RAM. Obviously the performance frequency is lower and thus the numbers are also smaller. But you'll notice that the ratios remain more or less the same.

Language Primes Native Callee
#1, #2 & #3
Managed Callee
#1, #2 & #3
CSharpPrimes 10 5973 35 25 4848 56 46
CSharpPrimes (ngen'd) 10 476 32 276 95 60 45
VBNetPrimes 10 7663 38 29 8144 59 50
VBNetPrimes (ngen'd) 10 489 35 29 101 63 51
MCPPPrimes1 10 6270 34 26 5383 57 46
MCPPPrimes1 (ngen'd) 10 499 31 24 127 56 46
MCPPPrimes2 10 4466 38 25 3646 61 47
MCPPPrimes2 (ngen'd) 10 624 31 25 247 65 47

You'd notice that there is a amazing increase in performance for the 2nd call and further calls. The most noticeable performance improvement is for the non-ngen'd DLLs. The ngen'd C# DLL shows a slight anomaly for it's 3rd run, but this might have been due to some OS activity coinciding with that exact moment. It's nothing but an anomaly, so you may safely ignore it. Thus, whether you ngen it or not, from the 2nd run onwards your methods will be nearly as fast as native calls, because there is no JIT overhead. But it will not be as fast obviously because of other overheads like garbage collection. You'll also notice that the 3rd call has actually improved over the 2nd call, but this improvement across calls drops sharply as we increase the call loop count. Now let's take the results for a larger number of primes.

Language Primes Native Callee
#1, #2 & #3
Managed Callee
#1, #2 & #3
CSharpPrimes 10000 165346 162135 158838 159857 157004 156279
CSharpPrimes (ngen'd) 10000 155593 154611 156586 157266 156629 154440
VBNetPrimes 10000 180720 172494 173198 175535 171634 170705
VBNetPrimes (ngen'd) 10000 172432 173577 172076 173416 175305 173921
MCPPPrimes1 10000 165775 159783 160712 161040 158640 157350
MCPPPrimes1 (ngen'd) 10000 155954 164162 159695 155283 159554 155928
MCPPPrimes2 10000 160007 154570 154990 171823 158746 156686
MCPPPrimes2 (ngen'd) 10000 156243 153972 154144 154966 157720 167443

Ah, now the performance improvements of ngen are not as obvious. This again confirms  the fact that over the long run, the bottlenecks of JIT fades off slowly and finally just about disappears.

Some conclusions

  • Using ngen has a tremendous performance improvement on your managed code. This is specifically higher when called from a managed client than when invoked from a native C++ client.
  • Managed/Unmanaged transitions are inefficient. And the unmanaged to managed transitions are much slower than the managed to unmanaged transitions. Thus wherever possible it's best to avoid managed/unmanaged transitions.
  • There is a marked improvement in performance of managed code if they are repeatedly invoked, because the JITing is done only the first time.
  • As we increase the number of primes the performance differences between the various languages starts to reduce, which again underlines the fact that without the JIT overhead managed code is just as good as native code.
  • Of all the .NET compilers, the VB.NET compiler seems to produce the slowest code. We think this is because VB.NET checks for overflows in all arithmetic operations (verified using ILDasm)
  • The C# compiler seems to be markedly better than the MC++ compiler (pure managed code).
  • Using ngen has most impact on VB.NET assemblies and least impact on MC++ assemblies
  • Mixing unmanaged and managed code with C++ is far more efficient than pure MC++. In fact pure MC++ is much slower than C# for fully managed projects. Thus unless you plan to integrate MFC or ATL, C# is the better choice over MC++.

Updates and fixes

  • Aug 10 2002 - A major goof-up was fixed. In the looped method tests, we had looped at the wrong place. Instead of looping the method we actually looped the execution of the client process. This has been fixed, and the tables and the excel sheets have been updated.


This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)

Written By
United States United States
Nish Nishant is a technology enthusiast from Columbus, Ohio. He has over 20 years of software industry experience in various roles including Chief Technology Officer, Senior Solution Architect, Lead Software Architect, Principal Software Engineer, and Engineering/Architecture Team Leader. Nish is a 14-time recipient of the Microsoft Visual C++ MVP Award.

Nish authored C++/CLI in Action for Manning Publications in 2005, and co-authored Extending MFC Applications with the .NET Framework for Addison Wesley in 2003. In addition, he has over 140 published technology articles on and another 250+ blog articles on his WordPress blog. Nish is experienced in technology leadership, solution architecture, software architecture, cloud development (AWS and Azure), REST services, software engineering best practices, CI/CD, mentoring, and directing all stages of software development.

Nish's Technology Blog :

Written By
United States United States
This member has not yet provided a Biography. Assume it's interesting and varied, and probably something to do with programming.

Comments and Discussions

GeneralMy vote of 5 Pin
Manoj Kumar Choubey7-Feb-12 2:58
professionalManoj Kumar Choubey7-Feb-12 2:58 
QuestionC++ or C#? Pin
Saad ur Rehman Qureshi15-Sep-05 1:41
Saad ur Rehman Qureshi15-Sep-05 1:41 
QuestionWhat about Database access? Pin
Abhijit Desai4-Jan-05 22:17
Abhijit Desai4-Jan-05 22:17 
GeneralLonghorn question Pin
Cohen Shwartz Oren16-Mar-04 6:18
Cohen Shwartz Oren16-Mar-04 6:18 
General.NET ngen question Pin
Anonymous23-May-03 2:55
Anonymous23-May-03 2:55 
GeneralRe: .NET ngen question Pin
Rai Umair10-Jul-03 14:26
Rai Umair10-Jul-03 14:26 
GeneralSignal to noise ratio Pin
20-May-03 12:29
suss20-May-03 12:29 
GeneralVisual Studio .NET 2003 .net 1.1 results Pin
Macromullet29-Apr-03 6:51
Macromullet29-Apr-03 6:51 
GeneralSimplistic Pin
Thong Nguyen27-Nov-02 20:46
Thong Nguyen27-Nov-02 20:46 
QuestionBad testing or Rigged tests ??? Pin
Foo_Bar26-Nov-02 5:51
Foo_Bar26-Nov-02 5:51 
AnswerRe: Bad testing or Rigged tests ??? Pin
Rama Krishna Vavilala26-Nov-02 9:43
Rama Krishna Vavilala26-Nov-02 9:43 
GeneralRe: Bad testing or Rigged tests ??? Pin
Foo_Bar26-Nov-02 15:16
Foo_Bar26-Nov-02 15:16 
GeneralRe: Bad testing or Rigged tests ??? Pin
Klaus Probst18-May-03 20:22
Klaus Probst18-May-03 20:22 
GeneralCritique & Suggestions Pin
Carl Daniel6-Oct-02 13:12
Carl Daniel6-Oct-02 13:12 
GeneralRe: Critique & Suggestions Pin
Nish Nishant6-Oct-02 13:43
sitebuilderNish Nishant6-Oct-02 13:43 
GeneralC++ flags used?, and some comments Pin
Anonymous15-Aug-02 17:54
Anonymous15-Aug-02 17:54 
GeneralRe: C++ flags used?, and some comments Pin
Anonymous15-Aug-02 22:00
Anonymous15-Aug-02 22:00 
GeneralYou are supposed to use Release Builds Pin
vrk16-Aug-02 12:03
vrk16-Aug-02 12:03 
GeneralOptionStrict = "Off" Pin
Scott Hutchinson14-Aug-02 20:37
Scott Hutchinson14-Aug-02 20:37 
QuestionOther languages? Pin
-Dy14-Aug-02 2:46
-Dy14-Aug-02 2:46 
GeneralCalling unmanaged code not through a COM interface Pin
hrh_hamlet13-Aug-02 4:16
hrh_hamlet13-Aug-02 4:16 
GeneralRe: Calling unmanaged code not through a COM interface Pin
Crius13-Aug-02 7:09
Crius13-Aug-02 7:09 
GeneralRe: Calling unmanaged code not through a COM interface Pin
hrh_hamlet13-Aug-02 8:24
hrh_hamlet13-Aug-02 8:24 
GeneralRe: Calling unmanaged code not through a COM interface Pin
Crius13-Aug-02 8:48
Crius13-Aug-02 8:48 
GeneralRe: Calling unmanaged code not through a COM interface Pin
hrh_hamlet13-Aug-02 9:52
hrh_hamlet13-Aug-02 9:52 

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