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Posted 19 Nov 2003
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Wrapper classes using C++ decorator templates

, 26 Nov 2003
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Using template classes as decorators to build a flexible wrapper class framework


This article presents a new (to me at least) spin on the decorator pattern, and demonstrates its use in building a flexible framework of wrapper classes.


The "Gang of Four" describe the decorator pattern as an object structural one, in that it endows an existing object with extra behaviour dynamically at runtime. Here we use templates to add behaviour to a class statically at compile-time.

This article is an extension of a blog post I wrote shortly after "discovering" the technique.

Using the code

The code is provided mainly to illustrate the use of "decorator templates" as a flexible composition technique, though some portions of the code itself may obviously be of use to anyone else building wrapper classes.

The basic form of a decorator template is as follows:

template < [ class CPolicy1 , ... ] typename TBase >
class CDecoratorT : public TBase
    // ...

Because TBase can itself be a decorated class, this allows arbitrary levels of nesting.

Initially the TBase template parameter was first, followed by the optional policy classes. Though this seemed logical, it led to the decorator template and its policy class(es) becoming "separated" when nesting was used.

The wrapper framework itself takes advantage of this nesting by building up the wrapper in various layers:

LayerPurposeType of class usedExample
StorageProvides storage for the underlying typeTemplateCTypeHolderT
Generic per-type functionalityUses policy classes to select the correct implementation of generic functionality for a given wrapped typeDecorator templateCDeepCopyableT
Type-specific functionalityHand-written classes to add useful methods to the wrapperNormal or possibly templateCHandleWrapperImpl
Generic per-wrapper functionalityProvides implementations of optional functionality, to be called either by the "client" class (see below) or externallyDecorator templateCDeepCopyCtorT
"Client"Provides implementation of "non-inheritable" methods (e.g. constructors) in terms of the previous layer. The nature of C++ templates mean that there will be a compilation error if and only if the method is used but not definedTemplateCWrapperT

There are also two other categories of classes which are not layers:

CategoryPurposeType of class usedExample
Policy classesUsed by decorator templates to provide a type-specific implementation of generic behaviourNormal or templateCCloseHandle
Miscellaneous helpersVariousUsually templateCAcquirerT

An example usage would therefore be:

typedef CDestroyableT       < CCloseHandle,
        CDeepCopyableT      < CDuplicateHandle,
        CInvalidatableT     < CInvalidValueT< HANDLE , NULL >,
        CShallowCopyableT   < CCopyByAssignmentT< HANDLE >,
        CTypeHolderT        < HANDLE > > > > >

class CHandleWrapperImpl : public CHandleWrapperBase
    bool Open(LPCTSTR szFileName)
        // ...
    // ...

typedef      CWrapperT
        <    COperatorT
        <    CDefCtorT
        <    CTCtorShallowT
        <    CHandleWrapperImpl > > > >

To do

This is merely a brief overview of the code, which is unfortunately rather short of meaningful comments. It is therefore my intention either to update the code with some useful comments (possibly Doxygen-style ones), or possibly extend the article to give a full walkthrough of the code. Any feedback as to which people would prefer would be most welcome, as of course would any questions, suggestions, etc. about the code itself.


  • 20 November 2003 - initial version
  • 24 November 2003 - minor correction: decorator is "object structural", not "object constructional" as I misremembered it


This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License


About the Author

Paul Bartlett
Technical Lead Google
United Kingdom United Kingdom
No Biography provided

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Comments and Discussions

Generalspecial member functions Pin
Paolo Messina28-Nov-03 5:28
memberPaolo Messina28-Nov-03 5:28 
GeneralRe: special member functions Pin
Paul Bartlett29-Nov-03 6:21
memberPaul Bartlett29-Nov-03 6:21 
GeneralRe: special member functions Pin
Paolo Messina29-Nov-03 23:59
memberPaolo Messina29-Nov-03 23:59 
GeneralPlease provide a demo application. Pin
John M. Drescher27-Nov-03 4:55
memberJohn M. Drescher27-Nov-03 4:55 
GeneralRe: Please provide a demo application. Pin
Paul Bartlett27-Nov-03 22:26
memberPaul Bartlett27-Nov-03 22:26 
GeneralTemplates vs Interfaces Pin
emilio_g27-Nov-03 2:53
memberemilio_g27-Nov-03 2:53 
GeneralAwesome!! Absolutely Awesome!! Pin
WREY24-Nov-03 23:20
memberWREY24-Nov-03 23:20 
GeneralRe: Awesome!! Absolutely Awesome!! Pin
Paul Bartlett25-Nov-03 0:23
memberPaul Bartlett25-Nov-03 0:23 
GeneralDecorator Pin
Nemanja Trifunovic21-Nov-03 5:46
memberNemanja Trifunovic21-Nov-03 5:46 
GeneralRe: Decorator Pin
Paul Bartlett23-Nov-03 22:41
memberPaul Bartlett23-Nov-03 22:41 
GeneralWTL as &quot;prior art&quot; Pin
Paul Bartlett21-Nov-03 5:24
memberPaul Bartlett21-Nov-03 5:24 
GeneralPolicy-Based Design Pin
Gavin Greig21-Nov-03 3:16
memberGavin Greig21-Nov-03 3:16 
GeneralRe: Policy-Based Design Pin
Paul Bartlett21-Nov-03 4:45
memberPaul Bartlett21-Nov-03 4:45 

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