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Posted 3 Oct 2015
Licenced CPOL

Fast and Simple IDataReader Implementation to Read CSV Files

, 3 Oct 2015
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A simple and fast CSV reader which you can directly use against Oracle and SQL Server databases or for any direct implementation

Introduction

When it comes to most data centric systems, there is often a need to import and parse CSV files and export that to databases like Oracle, SQL Server. .NET actually has a built in CSV parser, although it is well hidden in a VB.NET namespace. It is just a basic one and doesn’t provide direct data interoperability. Most of the time, programmers take this CSV parsing job as a simple task and end up in doing much more complex logic and a module which cannot go with inbuilt .NET databinding and ADO.NET libraries.

This usually results in a library that is not portable, low in efficiency and also does not go with requirements like handling column names to match with a database field. The library is created as an effort to create a generalized module to support most common requirements which a CSV parser can come across.

Features

  1. Follows the IDataReader interface which adds capabilities to use it in conjunction with common ADO.NET libraries like SQLBulkcopy.
  2. Module contains provisions to add an additional dummy field if required, rename an existing header to match the database table.
  3. The module provides a blazing fast algorithm to read through CSV files of huge sizes. Testing this module against 2GB files showed performance equal or better than any of the libraries found in web until today.

Overview of Methods

  1. Implements IDataReader pattern and usage is same as any datareader (SQLDataReader, OracleDataReader).
  2. AddVirtualColumn – Adds a new virtual column at the beginning of each CSV row.
  3. RenameCSVHeader - Renames virtual column header of CSV row.
  4. UpdateVirtualColumnValue - Updates the value of the virtual column.

Process Flow

Using the Code

/*Regular read from CSV file and do whatever you usually do. */
CSVDataReader rdr = new CSVDataReader(@"..\..\..\Data.csv");
rdr.AddVirtualColumn("Virtual_Column1", "1");
string header = "";
foreach (var item in rdr.Header)
   {
         header = header + " - " + item;
   }
Console.WriteLine(header);
int i = 1;
while (rdr.Read())
{
    Console.WriteLine(rdr[0] + " - " + rdr[rdr.Header[1]] + " - " +
    rdr[rdr.Header[2]] + " - " + rdr[rdr.Header[3]]);
    rdr.UpdateVirtualColumnValue("Virtual_Column1", (i++).ToString());
    rdr.Read();
}

Console.ReadLine();
rdr.Close();
Console.Clear();

/* Open the CSV datareader and pass the data to SQL bulkcopy object to bulkcopy to
 * dump the CSV file to db. This is the reason why I developed this utility class and
 * it works blazingly fast for my purpose, faster than any modules
 * I could find online todate.
 * To make bulkcopy work, the column mappings must be exactly same. Use rdr.RenameCSVHeader
 * for renaming the columns. Default CSV header('COL_'+ X) is different or header
 * is missing from file. Use rdr.AddVirtualColumn for adding a CSV column
 * if you want to add custom columns.
 */

rdr = new CSVDataReader(@"..\..\..\Data.csv");
System.Data.SqlClient.SqlBulkCopy bcp =
    new SqlBulkCopy(destconnectionStr, SqlBulkCopyOptions.UseInternalTransaction);
bcp.BatchSize = 500;
bcp.DestinationTableName = destinationTableName;
bcp.NotifyAfter = 500;
bcp.SqlRowsCopied += (sender,e) =>
{
   Console.WriteLine("Written: " + e.RowsCopied.ToString());
};
bcp.WriteToServer(rdr);

Implementation

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.IO;
using System.Data;

namespace System.Data
{
    public class CSVDataReader : IDataReader, IDisposable
    {
        private StreamReader _file;
        private char _delimiter;
        /* stores the header and values of csv and also virtual*/
        private string _virtualHeaderString = "", _csvHeaderstring = "", 
	_csvlinestring = "", _virtuallineString = "";
        private bool _firstRowHeader = true;

        private string[] _header;
        
        /// <summary>
        /// Returns an array of header names as string in the order of columns 
        /// from left to right of csv file. If CSV file doesn't have header then a dummy header 
        /// with 'COL_' + 'column position' will be returned. This can be manually renamed calling 
        /// 'RenameCSVHeader'
        /// </summary>
        public string[] Header
        {
            get { return _header; }
        }

        /*
         * The values of header and values must be in same order. So using this collection.
         * This collection stores header key as header name and its related value as value. 
         * When the value of a specific 
         * header is updated the specific key value will be updated. 
         * For Original Header values from the csv file the values will be null. 
         * This is used as a check and identify this is a csv value or not.
         */
        private System.Collections.Specialized.OrderedDictionary headercollection = 
					new System.Collections.Specialized.OrderedDictionary();

        private string[] _line;

        /// <summary>
        /// Returns an array of strings from the current line of csv file. 
        /// Call Read() method to read the next line/record of csv file. 
        /// </summary>
        public string[] Line
        {
            get
            {
                return _line;
            }
        }

        private int recordsaffected;
        private bool _iscolumnlocked = false;

        /// <summary>
        /// Creates an instance of CSV reader
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="filePath">Path to the csv file.</param>
        /// <param name="delimiter">delimiter character used in csv file.</param>
        /// <param name="firstRowHeader">specify the csv got a header in first row or not. 
        /// Default is true and if argument is false then auto header 'ROW_xx will be used as per 
        /// the order of columns.</param>
        public CSVDataReader(string filePath, char delimiter = ',', bool firstRowHeader = true)
        {
            _file = File.OpenText(filePath);
            _delimiter = delimiter;
            _firstRowHeader = firstRowHeader;
            if (_firstRowHeader == true)
            {
                Read();
                _csvHeaderstring = _csvlinestring;
                _header = ReadRow(_csvHeaderstring);
                foreach (var item in _header) //check for duplicate headers and create a header record.
                {
                    if (headercollection.Contains(item) == true)
                        throw new Exception("Duplicate found in CSV header. 
			Cannot create a CSV reader instance with duplicate header");
                    headercollection.Add(item, null);
                }
            }
            else
            {
                //just open and close the file with read of first line to determine how many 
		//rows are there and then add default rows as  row1,row2 etc to collection.
                Read();
                _csvHeaderstring = _csvlinestring;
                _header = ReadRow(_csvHeaderstring);
                int i = 0;
                _csvHeaderstring = "";
                foreach (var item in _header)//read each column and create a dummy header.
                {
                    headercollection.Add("COL_" + i.ToString(), null);
                    _csvHeaderstring = _csvHeaderstring + "COL_" + i.ToString() + _delimiter;
                    i++;
                }
                _csvHeaderstring.TrimEnd(_delimiter);
                _header = ReadRow(_csvHeaderstring);
                Close(); //close and repoen to get the record position to beginning.
                _file = File.OpenText(filePath);
            }
            _iscolumnlocked = false; //setting this to false since above read is called 
			//internally during constructor and actual user read() didnot start.
            _csvlinestring = "";
            _line = null;
            recordsaffected = 0;
        }

        public bool Read()
        {
            var result = !_file.EndOfStream;
            if (result == true)
            {
                _csvlinestring = _file.ReadLine();
                if (_virtuallineString == "")
                    _line = ReadRow(_csvlinestring);
                else
                    _line = ReadRow(_virtuallineString + _delimiter + _csvlinestring);
                recordsaffected++;
            }
            if (_iscolumnlocked == false)
                _iscolumnlocked = true;
            return result;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Adds a new virtual column at the beginning of each row. 
	/// If a virtual column exists then the new one is placed left of the first one. 
	/// Adding virtual column is possible only before read is made.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="columnName">Name of the header of column</param>
        /// <param name="value">Value for this column. This will be returned for every row 
	/// for this column until the value for this column is changed through method 
	/// 'UpdateVirtualcolumnValues'</param>
        /// <returns>Success status</returns>
        public bool AddVirtualColumn(string columnName, string value)
        {
            if (value == null)
                return false;
            if (_iscolumnlocked == true)
                throw new Exception("Cannot add new records after Read() is called.");
            if (headercollection.Contains(columnName) == true)
                throw new Exception("Duplicate found in CSV header. 
		Cannot create a CSV readerinstance with duplicate header");
            headercollection.Add(columnName, value); //add this to main collection so that 
					//we can check for duplicates next time col is added.

            if (_virtualHeaderString == "")
                _virtualHeaderString = columnName;
            else
                _virtualHeaderString = columnName + _delimiter + _virtualHeaderString;
            _header = ReadRow(_virtualHeaderString + _delimiter + _csvHeaderstring);

            if (_virtuallineString == "")
                _virtuallineString = value;
            else
                _virtuallineString = value + _delimiter + _virtuallineString;
            _line = ReadRow(_virtuallineString + _delimiter + _csvlinestring);
            return true;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Update the column header. This method must be called before Read() method is called. 
	/// Otherwise it will throw an exception.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="columnName">Name of the header of column</param>
        /// <param name="value">Value for this column. This will be returned for every row 
	/// for this column until the value for this column is changed through method 
	/// 'UpdateVirtualcolumnValues'</param>
        /// <returns>Success status</returns>
        public bool RenameCSVHeader(string oldColumnName, string newColumnName)
        {
            if (_iscolumnlocked == true)
                throw new Exception("Cannot update header after Read() is called.");
            if (headercollection.Contains(oldColumnName) == false)
                throw new Exception("CSV header not found. Cannot update.");
            string value = headercollection[oldColumnName] == null ? 
			null : headercollection[oldColumnName].ToString();
            int i = 0;
            foreach (var item in headercollection.Keys) //this collection does no have a position 
			//location property so using this way assuming the key is ordered
            {
                if (item.ToString() == oldColumnName)
                    break;
                i++;
            }
            headercollection.RemoveAt(i);
            headercollection.Insert(i, newColumnName, value);
            if (value == null) //csv header update.
            {
                _csvHeaderstring = _csvHeaderstring.Replace(oldColumnName, newColumnName);
                _header = ReadRow(_virtualHeaderString + _delimiter + _csvHeaderstring);
            }
            else //virtual header update
            {
                _virtualHeaderString = _virtualHeaderString.Replace(oldColumnName, newColumnName);
                _header = ReadRow(_virtualHeaderString + _delimiter + _csvHeaderstring);
            }
            return true;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Updates the value of the virtual column if it exists. Else throws exception.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="columnName">Name of the header of column</param>
        /// <param name="value">Value for this column. 
        /// This new value will be returned for every row for this column until 
        /// the value for this column is changed again</param>
        /// <returns>Success status</returns>
        public bool UpdateVirtualColumnValue(string columnName, string value)
        {
            if (value == null)
                return false;
            if (headercollection.Contains(columnName) == false)
                throw new Exception("Unable to find the csv header. Cannot update value.");
            if (headercollection.Contains(columnName) == true && headercollection[columnName] == null)
                throw new Exception("Cannot update values for default csv based columns.");
            headercollection[columnName] = value; //add this to main collection so that 
				//we can check for duplicates next time col is added.
            _virtuallineString = "";
            foreach (var item in headercollection.Values) //cannot use string.replace since 
		//values may be duplicated and can update wrong column. So rebuilding the string.
            {
                if (item != null)
                {
                    _virtuallineString = (string)item + _delimiter + _virtuallineString;
                }
            }
            _virtuallineString = _virtuallineString.TrimEnd(',');
            _line = ReadRow(_virtuallineString + _delimiter + _csvlinestring);
            return true;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Reads a row of data from a CSV file
        /// </summary>
        /// <returns>array of strings from csv line</returns>
        private string[] ReadRow(string line)
        {
            List<string> lines = new List<string>();
            if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(line) == true)
                return null;

            int pos = 0;
            int rows = 0;
            while (pos < line.Length)
            {
                string value;

                // Special handling for quoted field
                if (line[pos] == '"')
                {
                    // Skip initial quote
                    pos++;

                    // Parse quoted value
                    int start = pos;
                    while (pos < line.Length)
                    {
                        // Test for quote character
                        if (line[pos] == '"')
                        {
                            // Found one
                            pos++;

                            // If two quotes together, keep one
                            // Otherwise, indicates end of value
                            if (pos >= line.Length || line[pos] != '"')
                            {
                                pos--;
                                break;
                            }
                        }
                        pos++;
                    }
                    value = line.Substring(start, pos - start);
                    value = value.Replace("\"\"", "\"");
                }
                else
                {
                    // Parse unquoted value
                    int start = pos;
                    while (pos < line.Length && line[pos] != _delimiter)
                        pos++;
                    value = line.Substring(start, pos - start);
                }
                // Add field to list
                if (rows < lines.Count)
                    lines[rows] = value;
                else
                    lines.Add(value);
                rows++;

                // Eat up to and including next comma
                while (pos < line.Length && line[pos] != _delimiter)
                    pos++;
                if (pos < line.Length)
                    pos++;
            }
            return lines.ToArray();
        }

        public void Close()
        {
            _file.Close();
            _file.Dispose();
            _file = null;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Gets a value that indicates the depth of nesting for the current row.
        /// </summary>
        public int Depth
        {
            get { return 1; }
        }

        public DataTable GetSchemaTable()
        {
            DataTable t = new DataTable();
            t.Rows.Add(Header);
            return t;
        }

        public bool IsClosed
        {
            get { return _file == null; }
        }

        public bool NextResult()
        {
            return Read();
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Returns how many records read so far.
        /// </summary>
        public int RecordsAffected
        {
            get { return recordsaffected; }
        }

        public void Dispose()
        {
            if (_file != null)
            {
                _file.Dispose();
                _file = null;
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Gets the number of columns in the current row.
        /// </summary>
        public int FieldCount
        {
            get { return Header.Length; }
        }

        public bool GetBoolean(int i)
        {
            return Boolean.Parse(Line[i]);
        }

        public byte GetByte(int i)
        {
            return Byte.Parse(Line[i]);
        }

        public long GetBytes(int i, long fieldOffset, byte[] buffer, int bufferoffset, int length)
        {
            throw new NotImplementedException();
        }

        public char GetChar(int i)
        {
            return Char.Parse(Line[i]);
        }

        public long GetChars(int i, long fieldoffset, char[] buffer, int bufferoffset, int length)
        {
            throw new NotImplementedException();
        }

        public IDataReader GetData(int i)
        {
            return (IDataReader)this;
        }

        public string GetDataTypeName(int i)
        {
            throw new NotImplementedException();
        }

        public DateTime GetDateTime(int i)
        {
            return DateTime.Parse(Line[i]);
        }

        public decimal GetDecimal(int i)
        {
            return Decimal.Parse(Line[i]);
        }

        public double GetDouble(int i)
        {
            return Double.Parse(Line[i]);
        }

        public Type GetFieldType(int i)
        {
            return typeof(String);
        }

        public float GetFloat(int i)
        {
            return float.Parse(Line[i]);
        }

        public Guid GetGuid(int i)
        {
            return Guid.Parse(Line[i]);
        }

        public short GetInt16(int i)
        {
            return Int16.Parse(Line[i]);
        }

        public int GetInt32(int i)
        {
            return Int32.Parse(Line[i]);
        }

        public long GetInt64(int i)
        {
            return Int64.Parse(Line[i]);
        }

        public string GetName(int i)
        {
            return Header[i];
        }

        public int GetOrdinal(string name)
        {
            int result = -1;
            for (int i = 0; i < Header.Length; i++)
                if (Header[i] == name)
                {
                    result = i;
                    break;
                }
            return result;
        }

        public string GetString(int i)
        {
            return Line[i];
        }

        public object GetValue(int i)
        {
            return Line[i];
        }

        public int GetValues(object[] values)
        {
            values = Line;
            return 1;
        }

        public bool IsDBNull(int i)
        {
            return string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(Line[i]);
        }

        public object this[string name]
        {
            get { return Line[GetOrdinal(name)]; }
        }

        public object this[int i]
        {
            get { return GetValue(i); }
        }

    }
}

History

  • Initial release – V 1.0

The complete solution is attached for easy reference. Comments and bug references are welcome.

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)

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About the Author

shijo joseph
Technical Lead
United States United States
Started Programming career with VB 6 and VC++ and now Into .Net Development. Working with .Net since its first release (Version 1.0 Beta). Lucky enough to continue always with most updated versions of .Net and as of now; May 2007, fighting with .Net 3.0 (WPF,WCF...etc) and it's next most anticipated version LINQ.

Got familiarity up on the .Net Technologies and Guidelines like CAB, and Patterns and Practices, Enterprise Library and now with it's WPF version etc.

Specialized in Windows and Distributed and Service oriented applications.

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Comments and Discussions

 
QuestionBulk copy only works for all-string-columns table? Pin
asafmaitav4-Jul-18 1:23
memberasafmaitav4-Jul-18 1:23 
PraiseExcellent Pin
Jan Steyn23-Dec-15 21:52
memberJan Steyn23-Dec-15 21:52 
GeneralRe: Excellent Pin
shijo joseph31-Dec-15 3:59
membershijo joseph31-Dec-15 3:59 
QuestionI recommend to use "using" Pin
Member 17820297-Oct-15 2:35
memberMember 17820297-Oct-15 2:35 
AnswerRe: I recommend to use "using" Pin
shijo joseph7-Oct-15 9:39
membershijo joseph7-Oct-15 9:39 

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